Everything you need to know about the methods of training employees. Training is concerned with the development of the employees and imparts the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are required for specific jobs.

The nature of training method will depend on the nature of the job, the type of trainees and the purpose of training. Different methods are followed for providing training to its employees by different organisations.

The most popular training methods used by organisations can be classified as – on-the-job and off-the-job. The most widely used training methods take place on the job. These methods are popular due to their simplicity and the impression that they are less costly to use.

On-the-job training places the employees in actual work situation and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing and for jobs that are either difficult to simulate or can be learned quickly by watching and doing, on-the-job training makes sense.


Off-the-job training covers a number of techniques like classroom lectures, films, demonstration and programmed instructions. The facilities needed for each training programme varies from the small classroom to an elaborate development centre with large lecture halls supplemented by small conference rooms.

Training methods can be classified into two categories:- A. On the Job Training Methods and B. Off the Job Training Methods.

Some of the on the job training methods are:-

1. Job Rotation 2. Coaching 3. Job Instruction 4. Committee Assignment 5. Mentoring 6. Apprenticeship


7. Internship Training 8. Under Study 9. Special Projects 10. Class Room Training 11. Training Centre Training 12. Demonstration and Examples.

Some of the off the job training methods are:-

1. Vestibule Training 2. Lecture 3. Role Playing 4. Conference and Discussion 5. Case Study 6. Simulation Exercises

7. Sensitivity Training 8. Films and Videos 9. Learner Training 10. Selected Reading 11. Programmed Instruction/Learning 12. Brainstorming


13. In Basket Exercise 14. Business Games 15. Behaviour Modelling 16. Sensitivity (T-Group) Training 17. Multiple Management 18. Team Discussion.

Training Methods in Human Resource Management – On the Job and Off the Job Training Methods

Training Methods in HRM – 2 Important Methods Designed by Different Scholars: On the Job and Off the Job Training Methods

To familiarize the employees with the job and organization, different types of training programmes are designed. All those types of training can be provided through different methods or techniques depending upon the nature and types of training to be imparted, availability of time and cost involved in arranging training and the capacity of trainees.

Different scholars have designed different methods for imparting the training.

Applicability of these methods depends on type of trainees and nature of the programme which are described below:

Method # 1. On the Job Training:


On the job training is provided at the work site and in relation to actual job. Employees are placed on the job and are instructed to perform the job. Employees learn the technique by actual doing the work. Thus, training and job go together. A qualified instructor or a supervisor guides and instructs the workers and trainees have to work as per the guidance and instruction given to them. Several methods are used to provide on the job training like job rotation, coaching, job instruction, committee assignment etc., which are described below.

Merits or Advantages of On-the-Job Training:

On-the-job training offers the following advantages:

(i) It is simple and economical – This method is simple and economical because it does not require special place, personnel or equipment as training is provided on the site or work place with existing equipment.


(ii) Actual Practical Knowledge – Trainees learn on the actual machines and equipment that are in use in the real environment of the job and hence they get practical knowledge in their field of work.

(iii) Easy to clear the doubt – Since trainees work under the guidance and supervision of trainers, any doubt regarding the method or technique of doing work can be cleared on the spot.

(iv) Short duration – As the work and training go together, trainees learn the technique within a short span of a week or a fortnight.

(v) Suitability – It is widely used for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs like clerical, machinist, sales etc.



(i) Problem of Damage and accident – As the trainees learn in actual work environment they may cause damage and breakage to costly machines and equipment.

(ii) Difficult to concentrate – Trainees may find it difficult to concentrate in view of undesirable noise and frequent interference by the trainers.

(iii) Inexperienced Trainers – Training is provided by a senior staff or a supervisor who may not be an expert in imparting the training.

Methods of On-the-Job-Training:

The following are the important methods of on-the-job training:

(i) Job Rotation:

Job rotation means movement or shifting of an employee from one job to another at regular interval with an object to impart knowledge on variety of jobs. Employees gain knowledge and enhance their skill by working on different jobs which help them to reduce their monotony and boredom. But employees may feel insecure and may get disturbed because of frequent change of place and job.

(ii) Coaching:

It is yet another method of training the employees on the job. Here trainer acts as a coach and guides and instructs the trainees. The trainer not only gives instruction but also provides feedback on their performance along with suggestion for improvement. Thus trainees learn work by doing and improve their knowledge and skill in the course of learning.

(iii) Job Instruction or Training through Step-by-Step:

In this method trainees are given knowledge on how to do a particular job and method or technique of doing that job is also explained to them by the trainer. Trainer observes their work performance and provides feedback and offers suggestion for improvement. Here trainer provides the information one after the other or step by step and hence trainees do not get all the information at a time.

The different steps followed here by the trainer are as follows:

Step 1 – Preparing the employees for instruction.

Step 2 – Presenting the Job (Explanation and demonstration).

Step 3 – Making the employees to do the job.

Step 4 – Follow up.

(iv) Committee Assignment:

This method involves constitution of a committee of trainees and actual problem of the organization is assigned to it for solution. The trainees discuss the problem in group and give the solution. This method is designed to make all the employees take participation in the discussion and to create team spirit among them.

Method # 2. Off-the-Job Training:

Off-the-job training is conducted in a location which is away from the actual work place. It is conducted in a location specifically designated for training. It may be near the work place or away from the work place at a special training centre. Off-the-job training minimizes disturbance and allows trainees to devote their full attention to the training programme.

Some of the methods and materials used for off-the-job training are:

i. Vestibule training,

ii. Lecture,

iii. Role playing,

iv. Conference and discussion,

v. Case study

i. Vestibule Training:

Vestibule means an entrance hall through which main hall is entered. Vestibule training is provided in a separate hall or room in which actual work environment is created. Machines and equipments are installed; files and other required materials are kept ready in the training place in which actual work takes place.

Expert trainers are employed to provide training who train with the help of machines and equipment installed in the centre. This kind of training is provided for persons employed for clerical and semi-skilled job. The duration of training ranges from a few days to a few week.


a. Trainee can learn the method of doing the work fast as work place disturbance is avoided by arranging training in a separate hall or room.

b. Trainee finds it easy to learn the work as real work environment is created by installing machines and instrument.

c. As expert trainers are employed to train the employees, training programme becomes effective and useful.

d. This method of training is very much useful when a large number of employees are to be trained at a time.

e. Trainee can express his doubts and get clarification on the spot when the training programme is going on.


a. It is expensive as it requires a separate hall and creation of work environment for imparting training.

b. It is time consuming as training programme may last up to a week or a fortnight.

c. Appointment of Expert trainer for imparting training is an additional cost to the organization.

d. Creation of work environment is artificial and hence workers may not feel the actual work place atmosphere.

ii. Lecture Method:

It is a direct and traditional method of giving instruction. Here the trainer gives a lecture on a topic related to a training programme and he may supplement his lecture by group discussion, case- study film show etc. Lecture should motivate the employees to work hard and to show better result.

Important advantage of lecture method is that a large number of employees can be trained at a time. It is direct, simple and economical method of imparting knowledge to a large number of persons within a short time by a single trainer. Main drawback of this method is that it is monotonous, one way communication and no scope for participation are the other draw backs of this method.

iii. Role Playing:

Yet another important method of training is role playing. Here participants play the role of certain characters like Marketing Manager, Finance manager. Quality controller etc. Two or more persons are assigned the role of different positions and are asked to play in front of the rest of the group in an imaginary situation.

When a trainee plays the assigned role, he learns the way of interacting with others. Thus, role playing helps to develop interpersonal or human relation skills. It also helps to improve attitude and behavior of trainees as immediate feedback is given to the participants.

iv. Conference:

It is a participative method of training the persons where participants are divided into different groups consisting of 5 to 6 persons for group discussion. Problem of common interest is assigned to each group for discussion. All the groups discuss the problem and come out with solutions and report back to conference.

The objectives of the conference method are to develop problem solving and decision making skills among the participants and modify their attitude. This method stresses up on small group interactions and active participation of the trainees.

v. Case Study Method:

A case study is a real life situation or a hypothetical business problem or situation presented in writing to the trainees for study, analysis, interpretation and for proposing a suitable solution. The trainee is instructed to identify the problem, analyse the situation and devise a solution for the identified problem. The analysis and solution developed by the trainees are finally discussed in the group.

As case study method is an analysis of real-life situation, it helps to create interest in trainees. It also promotes analytical thinking and problem solving skill among them.

Training Methods in HRM – Main Methods of Training

Training is concerned with the development of the employees and imparts the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are required for specific jobs. The nature of training method will depend on the nature of the job, the type of trainees and the purpose of training. Different methods are followed for providing training to its employees by different organisations.

The main methods of training are explained below:

A. On the Job Training Methods:

1. Coaching

2. Mentoring

3. Job Rotation

4. Job Instruction

5. Apprenticeship

6. Internship Training

7. Under Study

B. Off the Job Training Methods:

1. Lectures and Conferences

2. Vestibule Training

3. Simulation Exercises

4. Sensitivity Training

5. Films and Videos

6. Learner Training

A. On the Job Training:

On the job training involves assignment of the new employee to a specific job at a machine or work place in the shop, office or laboratory. The worker is trained while he is engaged in the work by utilising the actual work situation for the purpose. He is given the work straight away under the supervision of some senior employee and he learns the job at the hands of this experienced worker.

He carries out his orders and instructions and follows the technique of operations advised to him. In this way, he is able to learn the work practically. Problems faced by him are immediately tackled; doubts if any removed and effective leadership offered. In this way, he goes on learning step by step by practically doing his job and reach mastery level. Thus, even during the course of his training, such worker contributes towards total production.

There is no problem of adjustment to the actual job after the training. With competent instructor, this type of training may be most effective for rapid training of large number of unskilled and semi-skilled workers. But sometime, employees may cause damage to expensive equipment and the rate of accidents may be high. It is not a suitable method where the job is of complex nature. The success depends entirely on the trainee’s own initiative and capabilities.

On the job training methods include the following:

1. Coaching:

Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles.

2. Mentoring:

The focus of this training is the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior person. It involves one-to- one interaction, like coaching.

3. Job Rotation:

It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. However, rotation must be logical.

4. Job Instruction:

It is a step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (b) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (c) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help. The trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’.

5. Apprenticeship Training:

This method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required for gaining proficiency. Apprenticeship training aims at providing necessary background practical knowledge and necessary experience to the worker. Its purpose is to prepare employees for skilled occupations, like carpentry, plumbing, etc. It combines classroom instructions, demonstrations and on the job training.

This method familiarises the trainee with the complications and intricacies of the job. A trainee, serving as an apprentice, has to work in direct association and under the direct supervision of his masters. Sometimes, workers are also placed as assistants to experienced workers to learn the process of work by imitation and experience. The apprentice works under his master. During the period of apprenticeship, the trainee may be given a stipend.

In India, apprenticeship training is governed by ‘Apprenticeship Act, 1961’. According to this Act, a contract must be signed between the enterprise and the trainee regarding apprenticeship. A copy of the contract must be registered with Apprenticeship authorities. The maximum period of the contract is five years.

6. Internship Training:

This method of training refers to a joint programme of training in which the technical institutions and business houses cooperate. The objects of such cooperation is to provide such training which will bring about a balance between theory and practice. The trainees are given theoretical instructions in technical or professional institutions. After theoretical instructions, they get practical training in factories or offices. In medical, auditing, management and lawyer’s profession, internship training is essential.

The candidates while in institutions or sometimes, even after their theoretical education receive internship training in hospitals, courts, management institutions and auditing firms. Internship training is useful in the case of technical and professional employees who require advanced theoretical knowledge and practical experience on the job. The method makes them familiar with the complications and intricacies of the work. However, this method is time consuming.

7. Under Study:

In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties.

B. Off the Job Training:

Off the job training is conducted separately from the job environment. Study material is supplied and there is full concentration on learning rather than performing.

Importance of the off the job training method include:

1. Lectures and Conferences:

Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every training programme starts with lecture and conference. If s a verbal presentation for a large audience. However, the lectures have to be motivating and interesting to the trainees. The speaker must have considerable knowledge in the subject. In the colleges and universities, lectures and seminars are the most common methods used for training.

2. Vestibule Training:

Under this method, new workers are trained with special machines or equipment in a separate location near the actual place of work under practical work situation. This place is called a vestibule and the actual work situation is duplicated here. An enterprise will arrange vestibule training when the number of workers to be trained is very large, and the line managers are not in a position to spare time for providing training. This type of training emphasis on teaching the best method of doing a task.

Furthermore, trainees have an opportunity to get accustomed to the work routine and recover from their initial nervousness before going on the actual jobs. Workers, are, thus, trained, without hampering the actual work of production, by qualified instructors. But vestibule training is comparatively expensive and trainees are not able to experience the actual work situations on the shop floor. It may be used as a supplement to ‘on the job training’.

3. Simulation Exercises:

Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation.

These are four basic simulation techniques used for imparting training:

(a) Management games,

(b) Case study,

(c) Role playing, and

(d) In basket training.

(a) Management Games:

Properly designed games help to ingrain thinking habits, analytical, logical, and reasoning capabilities, importance of team work, time management, communication and leadership capabilities etc. Use of management games can encourage novel and innovative mechanisms for coping with stress. Management games orient a candidate with practical applicability of the subjects. Different games are used for training general managers and the middle management and functional heads.


In a trucking business, managers could create games that teach truckers the impact of late deliveries, poor customer service or unsafe driving.

(b) Case Study:

Case studies are complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as well as illustrate the main point. Case studies are trainee centered activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting.

A case study allows the application of theoretical concepts to a situation, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice, encourage active learning, provides an opportunity for the development of key skills such as communication, group working and problem solving, and increases the trainees’ confidence hence their desire to learn.

(c) Role Playing:

Each trainee takes the role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impact of the issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities from the perspective of that person.

In particular, role-playing presents the student a valuable opportunity to learn not just the course content, but other perspectives on it. The steps involved in role playing include defining objectives, choose context and roles, introducing the exercise, trainee preparation/research, the role-play, concluding discussion, and assessment. Types of role play may be multiple role play, single role play, role rotation, and spontaneous role play.

Role playing can be effective in connecting theory and practice, but may not be popular with people who don’t feel comfortable performing in front of a group of people.

(d) In-Basket Training:

In-basket exercise, also known as in-tray training, consists of a set of business papers which include e-mail, SMS, reports, memos, and other items. Now the trainer is asked to prioritise the decisions to be made immediately and the ones that can be delayed.

4. Sensitivity Training:

Sensitivity training is also known as laboratory or T-group training. This training is to make people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. It is the ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view.

Sensitivity training program comprises of three steps-unfreezing the old values, development of new values and refreezing of new values. It reveals information about his or her own personal qualities, concerns, emotional issues and things that he or she has in common with other members of the group.

5. Films and Videos:

Films and videos can be used on their own or in conjunction with other training methods. To be truly effective, training films and videos should be geared towards a specific objective. They are also effective in stimulating discussion on specific issues after the film or video is finished.

Films and videos are good training tools, but have some of the same disadvantages as a lecture i.e., there is no interaction with the trainees.

6. Learner Training:

This method is also known as vocational school training. This method combines training with education. Learners are those who join industry for semi-skilled jobs without any prior knowledge about the elements of industrial engineering. They have, therefore need to undergo a programme of educational training. For this purpose, it may become necessary to send them to vocational schools for some time for the study of workshop mathematics and learning operation of machines. After this, they may be assigned a regular production jobs.

Training Methods in HRM : On the Job and Off the Job Training Methods

Training is an organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and acquire the skills they need for a definite purpose. Training is rooted in the learning process and learning is that human process by which skills, knowledge, habits and attitudes are acquired and utilised in such a way that behaviour is modified.

In simple words, training causes learning process that takes place within the trainees, in which behavioural changes occur as a result of experience. Learning cannot be measured directly but the changes in behaviour that occur as a result of learning can only be measured. Under training the trainee has to learn something what he wishes to learn.

There are so many methods or techniques for imparting training to the trainees. The forms and types of employee training methods are inter-related. In fact, methods are multifaceted in scope and dimension, and each is suitable for a particular situation. The best technique for one situation may not be the best for different groups or tasks.

The choice of any method will depend upon cost, time available, number of persons to be trained, depth of knowledge required, background of the trainees, type of the job, objectives behind training and many other factors.

Training methods can be classified into two categories:

I. On the Job Methods:

This refers to the methods of training in which a person learns a job by actually doing/ performing it. A person works on a job and learns and develops expertize at the same time.

1. Understudy:

In it, the employee is trained by his supervisor. The trainee is attached with his senior and called an understudy or assistant. For example, a future manager might spend a few months as assistant to the present manager.

2. Job Rotation:

This refers to shifting/movement of an employee from one job to another in regular intervals.

3. Special Projects:

The trainees may be asked to work on special projects related to departmental objectives. By this, the trainees will acquire the knowledge of the assigned work and also learn how to work with others.

4. Experience:

It refers to learning by doing. This is one of the oldest methods of on-the-job training. Although this is a very effective method, yet it is also very time-consuming and wasteful.

5. Committee Assignment:

In it, the trainees become members of a committee. The committee is assigned a problem to discuss and make recommendations.

6. Coaching:

In it, the supervisor or the superior acts as a guide and instructor of the trainee. This involves extensive demonstration and continuous critical evaluation and correction.

II. Off the Job Methods:

These methods require trainees to leave their workplace and concentrate their entire time towards the training objectives. In off-the-job methods, the development of trainees is the primary task while everything else is secondary.

Following are the main off- the-job training methods:

1. Special Courses and Lectures:

This is the most traditional method of developing personnel. Special courses and lectures are either designed by the company itself or by the management/professional schools. Companies then sponsor their trainees to attend these courses or lectures. These are the quickest and simplest ways to provide knowledge to a large group of trainees.

2. Conferences and Seminars:

By attending conferences and seminars, trainees try to look at a problem from different angles as the participants are normally from different fields and sectors. The participants pool their thoughts, ideas, viewpoints, suggestions and recommendations while participating in such conferences.

3. Selected Reading:

This is a self-improvement training technique. The persons acquire knowledge and awareness by reading various trade journals and magazines. Most of the companies have their own libraries. The employees become the members of the professional associations to keep abreast of latest developments in their respective fields.

4. Case Study Method:

This technique was developed by Harvard Business School, U.S.A. It is used as a supplement to lecture method. A case is a written record of a real business situation/problem faced by a company. The case is provided to the trainees for discussion and analysis. Identification and diagnosis of the problem is the aim in case study method. Alternative courses of action are suggested from participants.

5. Programmed Instruction/Learning:

This is step-by- step self-learning method where the medium used may be a textbook, computer or the internet. This is a systematic method for teaching job skills involving presentation of questions or facts, allowing the person to respond and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.

6. Brainstorming:

This is creativity-training technique; it helps people to solve problems in a new and different way. In this technique, the trainees are given the opportunity to generate ideas openly and without any fear of judgement. Criticism of any idea is not allowed so as to reduce inhibiting forces. Once a lot of ideas are generated then they are evaluated for their cost and feasibility.

7. Role-Playing:

In this method, the trainees are assigned a role, which they have to play in an artificially created situation. For example, a trainee is asked to play the role of a trade union leader and another trainee is required to perform the role of an HR manager. This technique results in better understanding of each other’s situation by putting one’s foot in other’s shoes.

8. Apprenticeship Training:

This training approach began in the middle Ages when those who wanted to learn trade skill bound themselves to a master craftsman and worked under his guidance. Apprenticeship training is a structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the- job training.

9. In Basket Exercise:

In this technique, the trainees are provided background information on a simulated firm and its products, and key personnel. After this, the trainees are provided with an in-basket of memos, letters, reports, requests and other documents related with the firm. The trainee must make sense out of this mass of paperwork and prepare memos, make notes and delegate tasks within a limited time period.

10. Business Games:

Business games involve teams of trainees. The teams discuss and analyze the problems and arrive at decisions. Generally, issues related with inventories, sales, R&D, production process, etc. are taken up for consideration.

11. Behaviour Modelling:

This is a structured approach to teach specific supervisory skill. It is based on the social learning theory in which the trainee is provided with a specific model of behaviour and is informed in advance of the consequences of engaging in that type of behaviour.

12. Sensitivity (T-Group) Training:

In this type of training, a small group of trainees consisting of 10 to 12 persons is formed which meets in an unstructured situation. There is no set agenda, schedule or plan. The main objectives are, more openness with each other, increased listening skills, trust, support, tolerance and concern for others, etc. The trainers serve a catalytic role.

The group meets in isolation without any formal agenda. There is great focus on inter-personal behaviour. The trainer provides honest but supportive feedback to members on how they interacted with one another.

13. Multiple Management:

This technique of training was first introduced by McCormick, President of McCormick & Co. of Baltimore in 1932. He gave the idea of establishing a junior board of directors. Authority is given to the junior board members to discuss any problem that could be discussed in senior board and give recommendations to the senior board. Innovative and productive ideas became available for the senior board.

Training Methods in HRM – Most Popular Training Methods Used by Organisations

The most popular training methods used by organisations can be classified as – on-the-job and off-the-job. The most widely used training methods take place on the job. These methods are popular due to their simplicity and the impression that they are less costly to use.

On-the-job training places the employees in actual work situation and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing and for jobs that are either difficult to simulate or can be learned quickly by watching and doing, on-the-job training makes sense.

One of the drawbacks of on-the-job training will be low productivity until the employees develop their skills and knowledge. Off-the-job training covers a number of techniques like classroom lectures, films, demonstration and programmed instructions. The facilities needed for each training programme varies from the small classroom to an elaborate development centre with large lecture halls supplemented by small conference rooms.

As there are continuous advancements in technology, we can expect programmed instructions to become more dominant. Two noticeable versions, Interactive Video Disks (IVDs) and Virtual Reality are gaining momentum in the corporate training. IVDs allow users to interact with a personal computer while simultaneously being exposed to multimedia elements. This motion picture enables the trainees to experience the effect of his or her decision in real time mode.

A variety of training methods for human resources find mention in literature and are in use in various organisations. The complex nature of job of today’s personnel makes it difficult to pinpoint one or few appropriate training methods. Carrol, Paine and Ivancevich had conducted a useful study to rate the relative effectiveness of various training methods in relation to different types of training objectives.

According to Nishit Kumar, the designing of an effective programme, as well as selection of an appropriate method can be facilitated by considering some fundamental questions such as –

The following are methods for training of employees:

1. On the Job Training:

Under this method on employee is put on the job, and is trained to perform the said job, thereby helping the employee to acquire the skills for performing the said job in future. Most of the organisations utilise the services of senior workers to impart such training apprenticeship, personal assistant to executives, job rotation and special assignments are different nature and forms of such training programmes.

(i) Job Instruction Training:

It is a step by step training. Such steps are identified in a sequence and the employee is exposed to different steps of a job.

(ii) Vestibule Training:

This method, duplicates, on the job situation away from actual worksite, with machinery and equipment Similar to those used in actual production or operation.

(iii) Class Room Training:

Such site training are given, in the forms of lectures, conferences, case studies, role playing and discussions.

(iv) Apprenticeship:

Such training is given for a longer duration to help the employees, to acquire skills in specific trades. A major part of this training is given on the jobs.

2. Off the Job Methods:

This method consists of the following:

i. Lectures

ii. Conference

iii. Group discussions

iv. Case study

v. Role playing

vi. Programme instruction

vii. T-group training

viii. E-learning

i. Lectures:

Through lectures, participants are motivated to learn. Lectures focus on understanding rather than enriching knowledge skills through reading assignments and experience. But the study also shows that this system is not effective since the participants do not retain the information and the failure of the lecturers to make such sessions, more interesting.

ii. Conference:

It is a participative group entered method, through which participants develop knowledge and understanding, the small group discussions and active participation.

iii. Group Discussions:

It is effective method of training, as is based on papers prepared by trainee on the given subject Trainees read their papers which are followed by critical discussions.

iv. Case Study:

Case study method helps students to learn on their own by independent thinking a set of data or some descriptive materials, given to the participants asking them to analyse, identify the problem and also to recommend solutions, for the same.

v. Role Playing:

The method helps in learning Human Relations skills through practice and imbibing and insight into one’s own behaviour Trainee of such programme, are informed of a situation and asked to play their roles before the rest of the class. This helps in the enriching of interaction skills of the employee.

vi. Programmed Instruction:

It is a prearranged desired course of proceedings to the learning or acquisition of specific skills or knowledge. Information are conveniently broken into different units to allow the trainees, to learn at their convenient pace

vii. T Group Training:

This is a sensitive training, and it takes place under laboratory condition and are mostly instructed and informal kind of training. Trainer in such a situation is catalyst. He / she help the individual participants to understand how others perceive his / her behaviour and how he / she act to others behaviour and how and when a group acts either in a negative or in a positive way.

viii. E-Learning:

Training programmes delivered via intranet have now been thought of, most cost effective route. It is not only cost effective but also caters to the real time information need of employees. It involves conveyance of some of technologies like hardware / software / web- designing and authorising / instructions designs / multimedia design / telecommunications and final. Internet, intranet methods management Organisations can outsource e-learning training modules at relatively cheaper rate. The training through e-learning is globally increasing.

Training Methods in HRM

The forms and types of training methods are interrelated. It is diffi­cult, if not possible, to say which of methods or combination of methods is more useful than the others. Infact, methods are multifaceted in scope and dimension, and each is suitable for a particular situation.

The forms and types of employee training methods are inter-related. It is difficult, if not impossible; to say which of the methods or combina­tion of methods is more useful than the other. In fact, methods are mul­tifaceted in scope and dimensions, and each is suitable for a particular situation. The best technique for one situation may not be best for other groups or tasks.

Care has to be taken in adopting the technique/method to the learner and the job. An effective training technique generally fulfils these objectives; provide motivation to the trainee to improve job perfor­mance, develop a willingness to change provide for the trainee’s active participation in the learning process, provide a knowledge of results about attempts to improve (i.e.) feedback and permit practicing where appro­priate.

Every organization has its own way of imparting training, the methods of training is depends upon the contents, target group, duration, nature of learning style and other facilities.

The broad based method of training has been described below:

1. On-the-Job Training:

Virtually, every employee from a clerk to the top level management gets some on-the-job training, when he joins a firm. Under this technique an employee is placed in a new job and is told how it can be performed. It is primarily concerned with developing in an employee skill and habits consistent with the existing practices of an organization, and with orient­ing him to his immediate problems.

It is mostly given for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs clerical and sales jobs. Employees are coached and in­structed by skilled co-workers, by supervisors, by the special training instructors. They learn the job by personal observation and practice as well as occasionally handling it. It is learning by doing and it is most useful for jobs that are either difficult to stimulate or can be learned quickly by watching or doing.

The main advantage of on-the-job training is that the trainee learns on the actual equipment in use and in the true environment of his job. Secondly, it is highly economical since no additional personnel or facili­ties are required for training. Thirdly, the trainee learns the rules, regula­tions and procedures by observing their day-to-day applications.

Fourthly, this type of training is a suitable alternative for the companies in which, there are almost as many jobs as there are employees. Finally, it is most appropriate for teaching the knowledge and the skills, which can be ac­quired in a relatively short period, say, a few days or weeks.

The principal disadvantage of on-the-job training is that instruction is often highly disorganized and haphazard and nor properly supervised. Moreover, learners are often subjected to distractions of a noisy shop or office. The other drawback is the low productivity, especially when the employee is unable to fully develop his skills.

I. Job Instruction Training:

This method is very popular in States for preparing supervisors to train operatives. The Job Instruction Training (JIT) method requires skilled trainers, extensive job analysis, training schedules, and prior assessment of the trainee’s job knowledge. This method is also known as “training through step-by-step learning”.

The actual training follows a four steps process, beginning with (i) the preparation of the trainee for instruction (ii) presentation of the in­structions giving essential information in a clear manner, (iii) having the trainee to try out the job to show that he has understood the instructions, if there are any errors they are corrected and (iv) encouraging the trainer to ask question and allowing him to work alone and the trainer follows up regularly.

The Job Instruction Training (JIT) method provides immediate feed­back on results, quick correction of errors, and provision of extra practice where required. However, it demands a skilled trainer and can interfere with production and quality.

II. Training Centre Training:

This method attempts to duplicate on-the-job situations in a com­pany class-room. It is class room training which is often imparted with the help of the equipments and the machines which are identical with those in use in the place of work.

This technique enables the trainee to concentrate on learning the new skill rather than on performing the ac­tual job. Theoretical training is given in the class-room, while the prac­tical work is conducted on the production line. Training is given in the form of lectures, conferences, case studies, role playing and discussion.

Merits of this Method:

This method has several merits. First, as training is given in a sepa­rate room, distractions are minimized. Second, a trained instructor, who knows how to teach, can be more effectively utilized. Third, the correct method can be taught without interrupting production. Fourth, it permits the trainee to practice without the fear of supervisors’/ coworkers’ observation and their possible ridicule.

Demerits of this Method:

This method has also some demerits. First, the splitting of responsi­bilities leads to organizational problems. Second, an additional invest­ment in equipment is necessary, though the cost may be reduced by getting some productive work done by trainees while in the school. Third, this method is of limited value for the jobs, which utilize equipment, which can be duplicated. Finally, the training situation is somewhat ar­tificial.

III. Demonstration and Examples:

In the demonstration method, the trainer describes and displays something, as when he teaches an employee how to do something by actually performing the activity himself and by going through a step-by- step explanation of “why” and “what” he is doing. Demonstrations are very effective in teaching because it is much easier to show a person how to do a job than to tell him to gather instruction from the reading mate­rial. Demonstrations are often used in combination with lectures, pic­tures, text materials, discussions, etc.

Demonstrations are particularly effective in the training for the ac­quisition of skills; but their usefulness is limited when it is a question of training management personnel. In a demonstration, the emphasis is primarily on theory of job must, therefore, be taught by some other method.

IV. Apprenticeship:

For training in crafts, trade and in technical areas, apprenticeship training is the oldest and most commonly used method, especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training period of two years to three years for persons of superior ability and from four years to five years for others.

The merits of this method are:

(a) A skilled work force is maintained;

(b) Immediate returns can be expected from training;

(c) The workmanship is good;

(d) The hiring cost is lower because of reduced turnover and lower production costs;

(e) The loyalty of employees is increased and opportunities for growth are frequent.

2. Off-the-Job Methods:

‘Off-the-job’ training simply means that the training is not a part of everyday job activity. The actual location may be in the company’s class­room or in places which are owned by the company or in universities or associations which have no connection with the company.

These methods consist of:

I. Lectures:

Lectures are regarded as one of the simplest ways of imparting knowledge to the trainees, especially when facts, concepts or principles, attitudes, theories and problem solving abilities are to be taught. Lectures are formal organized talks by the training specialist, the formal superior or other individual; specific topics.

The main advantage of this method is that it is simple and efficient and through it more material can be presented within a given time than by any other method.

II. The Conference Method:

In this method, the participating in­dividuals ‘confer’ to discuss points of common interest to each other. A conference is basic to most participative group cantered methods of de­velopment. It is a formal meeting, conducted in accordance with an organized plan, in which the leader seeks to develop knowledge and un­derstanding by obtaining a considerable amount of oral participation of employees.

III. Seminar or Team Discussion:

Seminars are conducted in many ways:

(a) It may be based on a paper prepared by one or more trainees on a subject selected in consultation with the person in charge of the seminar.

(b) It may be based on the statement made by the person in charge of the seminar or on a document prepared by an expert, who is invited to participate in the discussion.

The person in charge of the seminar distributes in advance the material to be analysed in the form of required reading.

IV. Case Studies:

In this method, the person in charge of training, makes out a case provides the necessary explanation, initiates the discus­sion going; and then, once the discussion gets going, he intervenes as little as possible. After discussions and detailed studies, the trainees prepare a report which contains an analyses of the situation and their recom­mendations on the corrective action to be taken.

V. Role Playing:

In role-playing trainees act out a given role as if they would be on a stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned parts to play before the rest of the class. These parts do not involve any memori­zation of lines or any rehearsals. The role players are simply informed of a situation and of the respective roles they have to play. Sometime after the preliminary planning, the situation is acted out by the role-players.

VI. Programmed Instructions:

Programmed Instruction involves a sequence of steps, which are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as guides in the performance of a desired operation or series of operations. In such a programme, knowledge is imparted with the use of a textbook or a teaching machine. The programme involves; presenting question, facts or problems to the trainee to utilize the infor­mation given; and the trainee instantly understands on the basis of the accuracy of his answer.