Training is the act of imparting information and special skills to a trainee for the purpose of increasing knowledge and skills for doing a particular job.

Benefits/Need for training

1. Training increases knowledge and skill of managerial personnel.

2. Training programme helps increasing quality and quantity of output.


3. It helps each individual to utilise his/her full potential.

4. By training, the worker is enabled to make the most economical and best use of materials and equipments.

5. Employees feel that they are being taken care of by the management and this results in increasing their morale.

6. Trained employees need less supervision.


7. The availability of trained managerial personnel ensures the long term stability and flexibility of the organisation.

Methods of Training

Training methods can be classified into two categories A) On- the-job methods B) Off-the-job methods.

A) On -the -job methods


1. On specific job.

a) Experience b) Coaching

2. Job rotation

3. Special project.


4. Vestibule Training

5. Committees and junior Boards.

B) Off-the-job methods

1. Special courses and lectures


2. Conferences

3. Case studies

4. Simulation-role playing

5. Sensitivity training


A) On-the-job methods

1. On specific job

Under this method, the trainee is given training for his specific job by senior executives of the organisation.

Training for a specific job may take the following forms :

a) Experience

Under this method trainee learns by experience. This method is wasteful and ineffective if it is not supplemented by other methods of training.

b) Coaching

Under this method, a trainee works as an assistant or deputy to a senior manager and learns by experience and observation.

2. Job rotation

This method involves transferring a trainee from one job to another on a systematic basis. If a trainee is rotated systematically from one job to another the general background of the employee is broadened.

3. Special Projects

In this method, the trainee may be asked to perform a special assignment so that he would be in a position to acquire knowledge and also learn the work procedure.

4. Vestibule training

Under this method, training is given to a trainee by the specialists of the concern by duplicating as nearly possible the actual working conditions of the work place.

5. Committees and Junior boards

Under this method, trainee gets training by serving as a member on a committee comprising of well experienced managers.

Besides the committees, the method of junior board consisting of younger executives as members, can also be used for the purpose of managerial development.

B) Off-the-job methods

Off-the job methods require the trainee to leave his work place for undergoing training programme.

1. Special courses and lectures

Under this method, special courses and lectures are arranged by the concern for training and developing their managerial personnel.

2. Conferences

Under this method managers and trainees attend conferences and seminars conducted by the organisation to discuss specific problems such as planning, organising, communications etc., and train and develop themselves.

3. Case studies

Under this method, the trainee is given the facts and figures of a particular situation and he is made to analyse the facts and figures and to take decision on the problem.

4. Simulation – Role playing

Under this method, instead of taking the trainee to the filed, the real situation of work environment in an organisation is presented to the trainee in the training section itself and the trainee is made to act on samples of real business situation in order to practice in decision making.

5. Sensitivity training

Sensitivity training means the development of awareness and sensitivity of behavioural pattern of oneself and others.