Training methods are means of attaining the desired objectives in a learning situation.

Today, training methods offer something for everyone — from initial employment to pre-retirement courses for those who are due to retire soon. These methods can be grouped into some categories on various bases.

Some of the methods of employee training and development are:-

1. Classroom Instruction 2. Audiovisual Training 3. Computer Based Training 4. On-the-Job Training 5. Off-the-Job Training 6. Electronic Training


7. Simulations 8. Business Games and Case Studies 9. Behavior Modeling 10. Experiential Programs 11. Team Training 12. Action Learning 13. Vestibule Training 14. Apprenticeship Training.

Methods of Training and Development

Methods of Training and Development – Top 10 Methods

Whether the organization prepares its own training programs or buys training from other organizations, it is important to verify that the content of the training relates directly to the training objectives. Relevance to the organization’s needs and objec­tives ensures that training money is well spent. Tying training content closely to objectives also improves trainees’ learning, because it increases the likelihood that the training will be meaningful and helpful.

After deciding on the goals and content of the training program, planners must decide how the training will be conducted. A wide variety of methods is available. Training methods fall into the broad categories- presentation, hands-on, and group-building methods.

Training programs may use these methods alone or in combination. In general, the methods used should be suitable for the course content and the learning abilities of the participants.


A wide variety of methods is available for conducting training. The percentage of learner hours delivered to employees by each of several methods- instructor led classrooms, online self-study, virtual classrooms, and other methods, in­cluding workbooks and videos. These other methods are being phased out at most companies as more and more training moves to Internet applications.

As a result, to­day most training programs are taking place in classrooms or online.

Method # 1. Classroom Instruction:

At school, we tend to associate learning with classroom instruction, and that type of training is most widely used in the workplace, too. Classroom instruction typically in­volves a trainer lecturing a group. Trainers often supplement lectures with slides, dis­cussions, case studies, question and answer sessions, and role playing. Actively involving trainees enhances learning.

When the course objectives call for presenting information on a specific topic to many trainees, classroom instruction is one of the least expensive and least time consuming ways to accomplish that goal. Learning will be more effective if trainers enhance lectures with job related examples and opportunities for hands on learning.


Modern technology has expanded the notion of the classroom to classes of trainees scattered in various locations. With distance learning, trainees at different locations at­tend programs online, using their computers to view lectures, participate in discus­sions, and share documents.

Technology applications in distance learning may include videoconferencing, email, instant messaging, document-sharing software, and Web cameras. General Mills uses these virtual classrooms at its smaller facilities, where offering a class on site is not cost-effective. Employees can sign up for online courses about specific products, general technical skills, and work functions such as mainte­nance procedures.

Distance learning provides many of the benefits of classroom training without the cost and time of travel to a shared classroom. The major disadvantage of distance learning is that interaction between the trainer and audience may be limited.

To over­come this hurdle, distance learning usually provides a communications link between trainees and trainer. Also, onsite instructors or facilitators should be available to an­swer questions and moderate question and answer sessions.

Method # 2. Audiovisual Training:


Presentation methods need not require trainees to attend a class. Trainees can also work independently, using course material prepared on CDs and DVDs or in workbooks. Audiovisual tech­niques such as overhead transparencies, PowerPoint or other presentation software, and videos or audio clips can also supple­ment classroom instruction.

Some technologies make audiovisual training available as podcasts on portable devices such as PDAs and iPods or other portable audio players. As video enabled devices become more widespread, the use of video files is likely to grow. At Capital One, employees enrolled in training courses receive iPods.

They can download programs on topics such as leadership, conflict management, and customer service. To make the audio programs more engaging, some are written in the format of a radio call in show. In classroom programs, role play and other exercises are recorded and then made available for download to trainees’ iPods.

Challenges of using podcasts for learning include ensuring that employees know when and how to use the technology, encouraging collaboration and interaction among trainees, and ensuring that employees can obtain the necessary downloads from their particular location and with their mobile device.


Users of audiovisual training often have some control over the presentation. They can review material and may be able to slow down or speed up the lesson. Videos can show situations and equipment that cannot be easily demonstrated in a classroom. Another advantage of audiovisual presentations is that they give trainees a consistent presentation, not affected by an individual trainer’s goals and skills.

The problems as­sociated with these methods may include their trying to present too much material, poorly written dialogue, overuse of features such as humor or music, and drama that distracts from the key points. A well written and carefully produced video can over­come these problems.

Method # 3. Computer Based Training:

Although almost all organizations use classroom training, new technologies are gaining in popularity as technology improves and becomes cheaper. With computer- based training, participants receive course materials and instruction distributed over the Internet or on CD ROM. Often, these materials are interactive, so participants can answer questions and try out techniques, with course materials adjusted accord­ing to participants’ responses.

Online training programs may allow trainees to sub­mit questions via email and to participate in online discussions. Multimedia capabilities enable computers to provide sounds, images, and video presentations, along with text.


Computer based training is generally less expensive than putting an instructor in a classroom of trainees. The low cost to deliver information gives the company flexibil­ity in scheduling training, so that it can fit around work requirements. Training can be delivered in smaller doses, so material is easier to remember.

Trainees often appreci­ate the multimedia capabilities, which appeal to several senses, and the opportunity to actively participate in learning and apply it to situations on the job. Finally, it is easier to customize computer based training for individual learners.

Current applications of computer based training can extend its benefits:

i. E-learning involves receiving training via the Internet or the organization’s in­tranet, typically through some combination of Web based training modules, dis­tance learning, and virtual classrooms.

E-learning uses electronic networks for delivering and sharing information, and it offers tools and information for helping trainees improve performance. Training programs may include links to other on­line information resources and to trainees and experts for collaboration on problem solving.

The e-learning system may also process enrollments, test and evaluate participants, and monitor progress.

ii. Electronic performance support systems (EPSSs) provide access to skills training, information, and expert advice when a problem occurs on the job.

As employees need to learn new skills, they can use the EPSS, which gives them access to the particular information they need, such as detailed instructions on how to perform an unfamiliar task. Using an EPSS is faster and more relevant than attending classes, even classes offered online.

The best e-learning combines the advantages of the Internet with the principles of a good learning environment. It takes advantage of the Web’s dynamic nature and ability to use many positive learning features, including hyperlinks to other training sites and content, control by the trainee, and ability for trainees to collaborate.

Method # 4. On-the-Job Training:

Although people often associate training with classrooms, much learning occurs while employees are performing their jobs. On-the-job training (OJT) refers to training methods in which a person with job experience and skill guides trainees in practicing job skills at the workplace. This type of training takes various forms, including apprenticeships and internships.

An apprenticeship is a work study training method that teaches job skills through a combination of structured on-the-job training and classroom training. The OJT component of an apprenticeship involves the apprentice assisting a certified tradesperson (a journeyman) at the work site.

Typically, the classroom training is provided by local trade schools, high schools, and community colleges. Under state and federal guidelines, apprenticeship programs must require at least 144 hours of classroom in­struction plus 2,000 hours (one year) of on-the-job experience. Some apprentice­ship programs are sponsored by individual companies, others by employee unions.

Most apprenticeship programs are in the skilled trades, such as plumbing, carpentry, and electrical work. For trainees, a major advan­tage of apprenticeship is the ability to earn an income while learning a trade. In addi­tion, training through an apprenticeship is usually effective because it involves hands on learning and extensive practice.

At its manufacturing facility in Toledo, Ohio, Libbey Glass has apprenticeship programs in mold making, machine repair, millwrighting, and maintenance repair. The program develops employees who are open to change, enables Libbey to use employees rather than outsource work, helps the company attract ambitious workers, and lets the company tailor training and work experiences to meet its specific needs.

An internship is on-the-job learning sponsored by an educational institution as a component of an academic program. The sponsoring school works with local employ­ers to place students in positions where they can gain experience related to their area of study.

For example, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Kirkwood Community College partici­pates in an organization called Workplace Learning Connection, which finds students internships at hundreds of local companies. High school students who pass a screen­ing by the Workplace Learning Connection participate in semester-long internships.

Many interns hope the internship will not only teach them about a workplace but also lead to a job offer. Brian Whitlatch interned at the Iowa 80 Truck Stop, where he helped mechanics work on trucks. He worked without pay as an intern, but he re­ceived course credit and, three weeks before graduation, a job offer. Many internships prepare students for professions.

To be effective, OJT programs should include several characteristics:

a. The organization should issue a policy statement describing the purpose of OJT and emphasizing the organization’s support for it.

b. The organization should specify who is accountable for conducting OJT. This accountability should be included in the relevant job descriptions.

c. The organization should review OJT practices at companies in similar industries.

d. Managers and peers should be trained in OJT principles.

e. Employees who conduct OJT should have access to lesson plans, checklists, procedure manuals, training manuals, learning contracts, and progress report forms.

f. Before conducting OJT with an employee, the organization should assess the employee’s level of basic skills.

Method # 5. Simulations:

A simulation is a training method that represents a real life situation, with trainees making decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen on the job. Simulations enable trainees to see the impact of their decisions in an artificial, risk free environment.

They are used for teaching production and process skills as well as management and interpersonal skills. Simulations used in training include call cen­ters stocked with phones and reference materials, as well as mockups of houses used for training cable installers.

Simulators must have elements identical to those found in the work environment. The simulator needs to respond exactly as equipment would under the conditions and response given by the trainee. For this reason, simulators are expensive to develop and need constant updating as new information about the work environment becomes available.

Still, they are an excellent training method when the risks of a mistake on the job are great. Trainees do not have to be afraid of the impact of wrong decisions when using the simulator, as they would be with on-the-job training. Also, trainees tend to be enthusiastic about this type of learning and to learn quickly, and the les­sons are generally related very closely to job performance.

Given these benefits, this training method is likely to become more widespread as its development costs fall into a range more companies can afford.

When simulations are conducted online, trainees often participate by creating avatars, or computer depictions of themselves, which they manipulate onscreen to play roles as workers or other participants in a job related situation. Trainees at CDW Corporation use avatars to participate in mock interviews with customers.

Employees of Loews Corporation use avatars to learn how to participate in meetings more effec­tively. As their avatar participates or remains silent during the simulated meetings, the program computes a score of their effectiveness.

Virtual reality is a computer based technology that provides an interactive, three dimensional learning experience. Using specialized equipment or viewing the virtual model on a computer screen, trainees move through the simulated environment and interact with its components. Devices relay information from the environment to the trainees’ senses.

For example, audio interfaces, gloves that provide a sense of touch, treadmills, or motion platforms create a realistic but artificial environment. Devices also communicate information about the trainee’s movements to a computer. Virtual reality is a feature of the simulated environment of the advanced manufactur­ing courses in Motorola’s Pager Robotic Assembly facility.

Employees wear a head mounted display that lets them view a virtual world of lab space, robots, tools, and the assembly operation. The trainees hear the sounds of using the real equipment. The equipment responds as if trainees were actually using it in the factory.

Method # 6. Business Games and Case Studies:

Training programs use business games and case studies to develop employees’ management skills. A case study is a detailed description of a situation that trainees study and discuss. Cases are designed to develop higher order thinking skills, such as the ability to analyze and evaluate information.

They also can be a safe way to encourage trainees to take appropriate risks, by giving them practice in weighing and acting on uncertain outcomes. There are many sources of case studies, including Harvard Busi­ness School, the Darden Business School at the University of Virginia, and McGraw Hill publishing company.

With business games, trainees gather information, analyze it, and make decisions that influence the outcome of the game. For instance, legendary motorcycle maker Harley Davidson uses a business game to help prospective dealers understand how dealerships make money.

Each round of the game challenges teams to manage a Harley dealership and compete against each other as they face a different business situation— new products, a change in interest rates, or a crisis such as a fire at the business. Games stimulate learning because they actively involve participants and mimic the competitive nature of business.

A realistic game may be more meaningful to trainees than presentation techniques such as classroom instruction.

Training with case studies and games requires that participants come together to discuss the cases or the progress of the game. This requires face to face or electronic meetings. Also, participants must be willing to be actively involved in analyzing the situation and defending their decisions.

Method # 7. Behavior Modeling:

Research suggests that one of the most effective ways to teach interpersonal skills is through behavior modeling. This involves training sessions in which participants observe other people demonstrating the desired behavior, then have opportunities to practice the behavior themselves.

For example, a training program could involve several days of four hour sessions, each focusing on one interpersonal skill, such as communicating or coaching. At the beginning of each session, participants hear the reasons for using the key behaviors; then they watch a video of a model performing the key behaviors.

They practice through role playing and receive feedback about their performance. In addition, they evaluate the performance of the model in the video and discuss how they can apply the behavior on the job.

Method # 8. Experiential Programs:

To develop teamwork and leadership skills, some organizations enroll their employ­ees in a form of training called experiential programs. In experiential programs, par­ticipants learn concepts and then apply them by simulating the behaviors involved and analyzing the activity, connecting it with real-life situations.

In France, some businesses are signing up their managers to attend cooking schools, where they whip up a gourmet meal together. Jacques Bally, who works for a school run by one of France’s top chefs, says cooking is a great way to learn teamwork – “It’s like in any squad, everyone is responsible for playing their part; they have their own tasks but a common objective—and if they want to eat in the end, then they have to get the meal ready.”

Experiential training programs should follow several guidelines. A program should be related to a specific business problem. Participants should feel challenged and move outside their comfort zones but within limits that keep their motivation strong and help them understand the purpose of the program.

One form of experiential program, called adventure learning, uses challenging, structured outdoor activities, which may include difficult sports such as dogsledding or mountain climbing.

Other activities may be structured tasks like climbing walls, completing rope courses, climbing ladders, or making “trust falls” (in which each trainee stands on a table and falls backward into the arms of other group members).

The impact of adventure learning programs has not been rigorously tested, but par­ticipants report they gained a greater understanding of themselves and the ways they interact with their co-workers. One key to the success of such programs may be that the organization insists that entire work groups participate together.

This encourages people to see, discuss, and correct the kinds of behavior that keep the group from per­forming well.

Before requiring employees to participate in experiential programs, the organiza­tion should consider the possible drawbacks. Because these programs are usually phys­ically demanding and often require participants to touch each other, companies face certain risks.

Some employees may be injured or may feel that they were sexually ha­rassed or that their privacy was invaded. Also, the Americans with Disabilities Act raises questions about requiring employees with disabilities to participate in physically demanding training experiences.

Method # 9. Team Training:

A possible alternative to experiential programs is team training, which coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal. An or­ganization may benefit from providing such training to groups when group members must share information and group performance depends on the performance of the in­dividual group members.

Examples include the military, nuclear power plants, and commercial airlines. In those work settings, much work is performed by crews, groups, or teams. Success depends on individuals’ coordinating their activities to make deci­sions, perhaps in dangerous situations.

Ways to conduct team training include cross-training and coordination training. In cross training, team members understand and practice each other’s skills so that they are prepared to step in and take another member’s place.

In a factory, for exam­ple, production workers could be cross-trained to handle all phases of assembly. This enables the company to move them to the positions where they are most needed to complete an order on time.

Coordination training trains the team in how to share information and decisions to obtain the best team performance. This type of training is especially important for commercial aviation and surgical teams. Both of these kinds of teams must monitor different aspects of equipment and the environment at the same time sharing infor­mation to make the most effective decisions regarding patient care or aircraft safety and performance.

To improve the performance of its ramp employees, United Airlines arranged for them to attend Pit Instruction & Training, near Charlotte, North Carolina. The training program uses a quarter-mile racetrack and pit road to train NASCAR pit crews, but it also provides team training to companies that want their teams to work as efficiently together as a NASCAR pit crew.

In United’s training program, the ramp workers actually work on race cars—changing tires, filling gas tanks, and so on. The trainers take videos, time them, and deliver feedback on their performance as they face challenges such as staff shortages or a parking spot strewn with lug nuts. The goal is for the ramp workers to develop skills in organizing, communicating, and standard­izing their work.

Training may also target the skills needed by the teams’ leaders. Team leader training refers to training people in the skills necessary for team leadership. For example, the training may be aimed at helping team leaders learn to resolve conflicts or coordinate activities.

Method # 10. Action Learning:

Another form of group building is action learning. In this type of training, teams or work groups get an actual problem, work on solving it and commit to an action plan, and are accountable for carrying out the plan. Typically, 6 to 30 employees partici­pate in action learning; sometimes the participants include customers and vendors.

Another arrangement is to bring together employees from various functions affected by the problem. ATC, a public transportation services management company in Illinois, used action learning to help boost profitability by reducing operating costs. Employees were divided into Action Workout Teams to identify ways of reducing costs and to brainstorm effective solutions.

Teams of five to seven employees met once a week for a couple of hours for up to two months. The teams studied problems and issues such as overtime, preventive maintenance, absenteeism, parts inventory, and inefficient safety inspection procedures. The teams assigned priorities to their ideas, developed action plans, tried their ideas, and measured the outcomes, eventu­ally saving the company more than $1.8 million.

The effectiveness of action learning has not been formally evaluated. This type of training seems to result in a great deal of learning, however, and employees are able to apply what they learn because action learning involves actual problems the organiza­tion is facing. The group approach also helps teams identify behaviors that interfere with problem solving.

Methods of Training and Development – On-the-Job Method, Vestibule Training Method, Class Room Method and Apprenticeship Training Method

There are various methods of training. The choice of any of the methods depends upon several factors like cost of training, number of workers, depth of knowledge required, background of the trainees, purpose of training and so on.

The various training methods may be grouped as under:

1. On-the-job Method.

2. Vestibule Training Method.

3. Class room Method.

4. Apprenticeship Training Method.

The second and third methods are also known as off-the-job training methods.

1. On the Job Training:

On the job training, as the name suggests, is the training imparted on the job and at the work place where he is expected normally to perform his duties. Under this method, the worker is assigned a job first and then someone is to guide how to perform the job in the best possible manner. It enables the worker to get training under the same working conditions and environment and with the same materials, machines and equipment’s that he will use ultimately’ after completing the training.

This is the most effective method of training the operative personnel and generally used in most of the industrial undertakings. Under this method, the responsibility to impart training to workers is given to the immediate supervisor who knows exactly what is to be taught to the trainee for the better performance or to some outside instructor who is specialist in the field.

Under this method, following systems may be included:

(a) Training by Supervisor – Supervisor in charge is responsible for imparting training to the operative staff under this system. The supervisor supervises and instructs the employee while on work. Sometimes he demonstrates the system of working to the employee. It enables the supervisor and the employee to understand each other better.

(b) Understudy System – Under this system, senior and experienced workman is assigned the job of teaching the new employee as his understudy. The trainee under this system loses his motivation and morale because the person under whom he is working does not take interest in him. A common version of such training is “three position plan”. Under it, a man learns from the man above him and teaches the man below him. This system is more suitable in circumstances where the trainer requires an assistant.

(c) Position Rotation – Under this system, the employee is periodically rotated from one job to another instead of sticking to one job just to acquire the general background and knowledge of the functioning of the job. Its major objective is to broaden the background of the trainee in various positions of the job.

2. Vestibule Training:

Under this method, the training is not given on the job but workers are trained on specific jobs in a special part of the plant by models. Training is given in a classroom where working conditions are created which are similar to the actual workshop conditions. After training, the worker is put on similar jobs in the workshop. It should be noted that a well-qualified and trained instructor should be the in charge of the programme.

This method is expensive because there is a duplication of material, equipment and conditions found in a real work­place but it is a correct blending of theory and practical work.

3. Classroom Method:

Where concepts, attitudes, theories and problem-solving abilities are to be learnt, the classroom instruction is the most useful device. In other words it is more associated with knowledge rather than skill. Orientation about organisation, safety training or refresher training can be accomplished most effectively in the classroom.

There may be different methods of instruction such as:

(a) Formal Lecture – Where depth of theoretical knowledge (such as safety, health etc.) is required, formal lectures are arranged by the organisation and delivered by the lecturer presumed to be a master of the subject at hand. The lecture method may be used for a large group and, therefore, cost per trainee is low. Trainees should be permitted to ask questions.

Lectures can easily be combined with the following other techniques.

The Second Method is where all students participate in the seminar under a chairman who sparked off the idea and discussion follows, which, in turn, leads to further ideas.

(b) Conference and Seminar – There are two types of seminars. The first is that in which a student gives a lecture on some predetermined topic and is followed by discussion and exchange of views under a chairman who sums up the discussion by his fruitful advices and comments.

(c) Role-playing – Under this system, the trainees play their assigned role (such as the role of supervisor, instructor, etc.) under an instructor who prepares them and assigns different roles for the play.

(d) Case Study – Case Study is a practical problem faced by an industrial unit which is discussed at large in the group, possibly to find an optimum solution. The trainee studies the problem and finds the solution. The supervisor revises the solutions and discusses it with the trainees.

The above systems in classroom method are not of much value for the operative staff. These are used generally to train the employees for various executive positions.

4. Apprenticeship Training:

Apprenticeship training programs tend towards more education than on-the-job training or vestibule schools, in that knowledge and skill in doing a craft or a series of related jobs are involved. The Governments of various countries have passed law and made it obligatory on the part of the employer (public or private) to provide apprenticeship training. This may be combined with on-the-job training and/or classroom instruction. The apprentices get stipend during training period are generally offered jobs after the completion of training by the employer.

The Government of India also passed the Apprenticeship Act 1961, under which employers of certain notified industries are required to engage apprentices in certain designated trades.

Methods of Training and Development – On-the-Job Methods and Off-the-Job Methods of Training Employees

Training methods are means of attaining the desired objectives in a learning situation. Today, training methods offer something for everyone — from initial employment to pre-retirement courses for those who are due to retire soon. These methods can be grouped into some categories on various bases. For example, training methods can be grouped on the basis of level of personnel in an organization because three categories of people — operative, supervisor, and management — have different training needs and, therefore, different training methods may be suitable for them.

Training methods can also be grouped on the basis of the emphasis which they put on the training process. Thus, training methods may be on-the-job-oriented like experience while working on a particular job, job rotation, guidance and counselling, vestibule school, apprenticeship, etc.; simulation — role playing, case method, management game, in-basket exercise; knowledge-based — lectures, seminars, workshops, programmed instructions, etc., experiential methods — sensitivity training and transactional analysis.

Various training methods have different orientation and, therefore, are suitable for different groups of personnel. Some of these training methods are used on the job, known as on-the-job training while some training methods are used off the job, known as off-the-job training.

Method # 1. On-the-Job Training:

On-the-Job Training (OJT) is the most common form of training for any person in the organization. The basic theme of on-the-job training is ‘to learn by doing itself. The trainee learns while he is actually engaged in doing a job. This engagement may be on a specific job or there may be job rotation, that is, rotating an individual in different functional areas over a period of time. For operatives who are engaged in routine and repetitive job, OJT is the most important tool. Initially, an operative requires the help of a trainer to learn how he should proceed in the job performance.

Gradually, he learns the methods involved and gets perfection over these. Based on the experience, the operative may weed out the unnecessary movements in the job performance and become more efficient. However, when there is any change in the methods of operations, he has to learn again through the same process which was adopted at the initial stage.

Method # 2. Off-the-Job Training:

Off-the-job training is provided at a place which is different from the workplace of the trainees concerned. It is a kind of supplement to on-the-job training. In a dynamic environment where things change rapidly, new ways of doing things are required which may not be generated exclusively by on-the-job training. Therefore, the persons to be trained are taken away from their workplace. Generally, as an individual moves up in organizational hierarchy, more learning is required through off-the-job training.

A brief discussion of these training methods is provided here:

i. Job Instruction Training:

Job instruction training (JIT), also known as ‘training through step-by-step’, involves listing of all necessary steps involved in the job performance with a sequential arrangement of all steps. These steps show what is to be done, how to be done, and why to be done. This method of training is useful for operatives. Sometimes, these instructions are computerized in the form of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) which is useful for educated operatives.

ii. Apprenticeship:

Apprenticeship as a method of training in which a trainee, called as apprentice, learns doing a technical job under the guidance of a skilled person in that job. This training is usually provided for a comparatively longer time and time period depends on the type of job. The areas in which apprenticeship training is offered are numerous ranging from the job of a draughtsman, machinist, printer, tool-maker, engraver, electrician, etc.

iii. Coaching/Understudy:

Coaching, also called as understudy, involves direct personal instructions and guidance usually with demonstration and continuous critical evaluation and correction. In this method, the trainee works normally as assistant under the direction and supervision of a person. Normally, this method is applied by industrialists to develop their family members or sponsored candidates to develop them for occupying key positions in the organization concerned.

iv. Mentoring:

The literal meaning of mentoring is to provide wise counseling. In mentoring method of training, a senior manager acts as a mentor of a trainee, either a new recruit or experienced person likely to occupy a higher position in near future. The mentor develops relevant skills in the trainee through coaching, counseling, guiding, and providing emotional support.

v. Job Rotation:

Job rotation involves movement of an employee from one functional area to another area or from one plan to another plan on a planned basis. Such movement may be for a period ranging from 6 months to 2 years before a person is established in a particular job or department. In this case, the movement is not meant for transfer but is meant for learning the interdependence of various jobs so that the trainee can look at his job in broader perspective.

vi. Participation in Deliberations:

Participation in deliberations involves developing employees by their participation in decision making. Managerial personnel may be developed through their participation in deliberations and decision making in group form such as committees, task forces, project assignments, etc. Though all these groups are formed for different purposes, they contribute to the development of personnel also.

vii. Vestibule Training:

In general, vestibule is a cavity serving as an entrance point from one part to another, for example, passenger coaches in railway. In vestibule training, a trainee learns his job on the equipment which he will use in his actual work performance. Vestibule training is useful for those employees who are likely to handle sophisticated machine or equipment.

viii. Lectures and Conferences:

Lectures and conferences are knowledge-based management development methods. In these methods, an effort is made to expose participants to concepts and theories, basic principles, and pure and applied knowledge in any particular area. Basically, these aim at transmission of knowledge pertaining to the relevant area. While lecture method emphasizes one-way communication, conference method provides opportunity for two-way communication.

ix. Syndicate:

In syndicate training method, groups of trainees are constituted with each group having 8-10 members. Each group works on the problems on the basis of briefs and background papers provided by the resource person (the trainer). After the preliminary exercise, a group presents its ideas on the issues involved along with other groups.

After the presentation of ideas, these are evaluated by group members with the help of the resource person and group members evaluate where they have lacked. Such exercises are repeated to enable the participants in syndicate training to look at the problems in right perspective. This method is quite helpful in developing analytical skills.

x. Simulation Training:

Simulation training involves creating a situation in a learning environment which is similar to organizational situation. This situation is known as simulated situation and is a mock-up of real things. Simulation training helps in developing various types of skills in participants depending on the simulated methods used. There are four commonly adopted simulated training methods- role playing, in-basket exercise, case study, and management game. Role playing method involves human interaction in imaginary situation.

It helps the trainees to develop better perspective in performing their jobs because they may see the jobs from different angles. In-basket method, a variety of situations is given like different types of incoming mails or incidents and the trainees are asked to set their priorities for dealing with these mails or incidents. Through the feedback of their priorities, the trainees come to know their behavioural pattern and try to overcome the one which is not productive or functional. Thus, he can learn techniques of giving priorities to various problems faced by them. Case study involves dealing with a case in a group.

A case presents various problems in a situation which the participants are required to solve. It helps in developing diagnostic and analytical skills as well as interpersonal competence of the participants. Management game, also known as business game, is a form of simulation which involves a sequential decision-making exercise. A game involves the participation of two or more teams with each team having 4-7 participants.

Each competing team is given a company to operate in the light of the situations provided in the game which include nature of market environment, nature of facilitating and restraining factors, factors which may affect decisions, number of time periods, and duration of each time period. Management game helps in developing decision-making skills of the participants.

xi. Sensitivity Training:

Sensitivity training (also known as laboratory or T-group with T standing for training) is a small group interaction process in the unstructured form which requires people to become sensitive to others’ feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. Sensitivity training helps participants to become aware of their emotions and emotional reactions, thereby developing behavioural effectiveness.

xii. Transactional Analysis:

Transactional analysis refers to the method of analyzing and understanding interpersonal behaviour through analysis of transactions which take place between two or more persons. When people interact, there is a social transaction in which one person sends stimulus requiring response and another person responds. The stimulus and response are based on the psychological states of the persons concerned, known as ego states.

When the transaction is complementary, interpersonal interaction proceeds further and the objective of the interaction is achieved. In the alternative case, interpersonal interaction breaks. A transaction is complementary when stimulus and response emerge from the same ego states. Transactional analysis helps people to engage in complementary transactions. It also helps in developing positive thinking and interpersonal effectiveness. Thus, behavioural pattern in an organization becomes positive which contributes to organizational efficiency.

Methods of Training and Development – On-the-Job Training, Off-the-Job Training and Electronic Training

Once you have decided to train employees and have identified their training needs and goals you have to design the training program.

1. On the Job Training:

On the job training is the heart and soul of all training in business and industry. On the job training means having a person learn a job by actually doing it. This is the traditional method of learning which is designed to maximise learning while allowing the employee to perform his job under the supervision and guidance of a trained worker.

This is the most effective method. Every employee from clerk to company president, gets on the job training when he/she joins the firm.

There are several types of on the job training:

a. Coaching/Understudy Method:

This is the most familiar type of on the job training. Here an experienced worker on the trainee’s Superior trains the employee. At lower levels trainee may acquire skills by observing the supervisor. But this technique is widely used at top management levels too. A potential future CEO might spend a year as assistant to the current CEO.

Effectiveness of coaching depends upon following factors:

i. Explain appropriate ways of doing things.

ii. Make clear why some actions are taken.

iii. State the observations accurately.

iv. Offer possible alternatives

v. Give suggestions whenever required.

b. Job Rotation:

In this technique an employee casually a management trainee, moves from one job to another at planned intervals. He understands the larger organisational perspective and different functional areas. He attains a better sense of his own career objectives and interests. The cross trained workers will be more flexible in future in case of transfers, Promotions or replacements.

Jeffrey Immelt progressed through such a process in becoming GE’s New CEO.

c. Special Assignments:

This gives lower level executives firsthand experience in working on actual problems. In this method, trainers acquire knowledge about the assigned activities and learn how to work with others. The men’s wear house with 455 stores nationwide makes extensive use of on the job training. It has few full time trainers instead the men’s wear house has a normal process of “Cascading” responsibility for training. Every manager is formally accountable for the development of his/her subordinates.

d. Apprenticeship Training:

Apprenticeship training is a structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on the job training. This technique may be traced back to medieval times when those who wanted to learn trade skills used to bind themselves to master craftsman to learn by doing the work under his guidance. It is widely used to train individuals for many occupations.

e. Informal Learning:

Employers should not underestimate the importance or value of informal training surveys from the American Society for training and development estimate that as much as 80%. What employees learn on the job they learn not through normal training programs but through informal means including performing their jobs on a daily basis in collaboration with their colleagues.

f. Job Instruction Training:

Many job consist of a logical sequence of steps and are best taught step by step. This step by step process is called job instruction training. JIT is basically used to teach the workers how to do their current job. To begin list all the necessary steps in the job each in its proper sequence. Alongside each step also list a corresponding “Key point”. The steps show what is to be done and the key points show how it is to be done and why.

The four steps involved in this process are:

i. The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purposes and desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training.

ii. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer demonstrates to him the right way to doing the job.

iii. The trainee is then asked to copy the trainer demonstration. Demonstration by the trainer and practice by the trainer are repeated till the trainee master the right way to perform the job.

iv. Finally the employee does the job independently without supervision.

g. Programmed Learning:

Whether the medium is a textbook, computer or the internet programmed learning is a step by step self-learning method that consists of three parts.

i. Presenting questions, facts, Problems to the learner.

ii. Allowing the person to respond.

iii. Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers.

Essentials of OJT:

i. Prepare the Learner:

a. Put the learner at ease-relieve the tension.

b. Explain why he or she is being taught.

c. Create interest, encourage questions, find out what the learner already knows about this or other jobs.

d. Explain the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows.

ii. Present the Operation:

a. Explain quantity and quality requirements.

b. Go through the job at a slow pace several times.

c. Again go through the job at a slow pace several times explain the key points.

iii. Do a Tryout:

a. Correct mistakes and if necessary do some of the complicated steps the first few times.

b. Run the job at the normal pace.

c. Have the learner do the job gradually building up skills and speed.

iv. Follow Up:

a. Designate to whom the learner should go for help.

b. Gradually decrease supervision.

c. Correct faulty patterns before they become a habit.


a. The trainee learns on the actual machine in use and in real environment of the job. He gets a feel of the actual job.

b. OJT is the type of training which can be tailored to suit the specific requirements of each trainee, in terms of his background, attitudes, needs, ‘ expectations, goals and future assignments.

c. The trainee learns the rules, regulations and procedures of observing their day to day applications.

d. OJT is specific, practical and tangible.

e. OJT is most suitable for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs where the job operations are simple.


a. In OJT there is a tendency to neglect, disregard and even to do away with, in some cases, the essentials of principles and theory in favour of immediate product.

b. Trainee while learning may damage equipment, waste materials, cause accidents frequently.

c. The workplace, with environments charged with hustle and noise and the pace of skilled workers, is most likely to affect the learning and may create a feeling of frustration in the mind of a trainee.

d. Experienced workers cannot use the machinery while it is being used for training.

2. Off the Job-Training:

In off the job training methods the trainees have to leave their workplace and devote their entire time to the training.

A few of off-job training techniques are as follows:

a. The Case Study Method:

The case study method presents a trainee with a written description of an organisational problem. The person then analyses the case, diagnoses the problem and presents his/her finding and solutions in a discussion with other trainees. Integrated case scenarios expand the case analyses concept by creating long term comprehensive case situation.

For example the F.B.I Academy created an integrated case scenario. It starts with a concerned citizen’s telephone call and ends in weeks later with a simulated trail. In between is the stuff of a genuine investigation, including a healthy sampling of what can go wrong in actual criminal injury.

b. Management Games:

With computerised management games trainees are divided into five or six person groups each of which competes with the others in a simulated market place. Each group typically must decide. For example – (i) How much to spend on advertisement (ii) How much to produce (iii) How much inventory to maintain (iv) How many of which product to produce.

They help trainees develop their problem solving skills as well as to focus attention on planning rather than just putting out fires.

c. Vestibule Training:

In this method a training centre called vestibule is set up and actual job conditions are duplicated or stimulated in it. Expert trainers are employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with those used at the workplace. This method of training is used primarily when large number of employees must be trained quickly, as needed, as a result of expansion of business activities by firms or industries, although it is also helpful as a preliminary to on the job training.

d. Internship Training:

In internship training, educational institutions and business firms have a joint programme of training. Selected candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge and skills. This method helps to provide a good balance between theory and practice. But it involves a long time period due to slow process. Internship training is used in professional courses e.g. MBBS, C.A., ICWA etc.

e. University Related Programmes:

Many universities provide executive education and training, containing education programs in leadership supervision and the like. These can range from one to four day programs to executives development program lasting one to four months.

The Advanced Management Program of the graduate school of Business Administration at Harvard University is one traditional example. A class in this program consists of experienced managers from around the world.

f. Conferences:

Conference is a favourite training method. Many organisations have adopted guided discussion type of conferences in their training programmes, in order to escape the limitations of the lecture method. In conferences, the participants pool their ideas and experiences to arrive at improved methods of dealing with the problems which are the common subject of discussion.

Conference may include buzz sessions that divide the conference into small groups for intensive discussion. These small groups then report back their conclusions or questions to the whole conference. Conference method allows the trainees to look at the problems from a broader angle. However unless the conference is directed towards the required needs of the participants, they may feel that the whole exercise is useless.

g. Role Playing:

Role playing is a method of human interactions that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. Role playing involves action, doing and practice. The trainees play the role of certain characters e.g. the different position holders in the organisation. By role playing, a trainee can broaden his experience by trying different approaches/roles, while in actual practice, he often has only one role to play.

3. Electronic Training:

a. Audio-Visuals:

Audio visuals include television slides, overheads, films, power points, video conferencing, audio-video tapes etc. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. Audio-visual aids tend to be more interesting. This method, however, is more intensive as compared to other traditional methods. Moreover, it constitutes a one way system of communication with no scope for the trainees to raise questions on doubts for clarification.

b. Computer Based Training:

In computer based training, the trainee uses computer based and/or CD-Rom system to interactively increase his/her knowledge or skills. This program can be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. The feedback from this method is as rich and colourful as modern electronic games, complete with audio instructions and video displays. A limitation of this method is its high cost, but repeated use often justifies the cost.

c. Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS):

People do not remember everything they learn. The training in this method focusses on the skills the employees need every day for performing their jobs. Computer based support systems, then deliver the rest of what they need to know, when they need it. Employers use job aids for this purpose. Job aid is a set of instructions, diagrams or similar methods available at the job site to guide the workers.

EPSS are a set of computerised tools and displays that automate training, documentation and phone support integrate this automation into applications and provide support that is faster, cheaper and more effective than traditional methods.

d. Distance and Internet Based Training:

Distance learning methods include traditional paper and pencil correspondence courses as well as tele training, video-conferencing and internet based classes.

i. Tele Training – In tele training, a trainer in a central location teacher groups of employees at remote locations via television. Honda America Corporate began by using satellite technology to train engineers and now it uses it for many other types of employee training. This method is very cost effective.

ii. Video-Conferencing – Companies use this method to train the employees who are geographically separated from each other or from the trainer. This method allows people in one location to communicate line via a combination of audio and visual equipment with people in another city or country.

iii. Business Portals – Training oriented learning portals are used to deliver training in this method. These portals contract with employers and deliver training options to the firms employees. The technology of the learning portal puts more and more information into everyone’s hands. Instead of limiting training opportunities to teacher led conventional classes or to periodic training sessions, training becomes available all the time.

Methods of Training and Development – Broadly Classified into Two Groups Based on Location of Training: On-the-Job and Off-the-Job

The training methods could be broadly classified into two groups based on location of training, i.e., whether the training is imparted at the workplace or away from the workplace.

They are:

1. On-the-job training and

2. Off-the-job training.

1. On-the-Job Training Methods:

On-the-job methods are conducted at the workplace when the employee is actually working in plant, office or sales function, meeting customers.

Some of the important on-the-job methods are given below:

a. On-the-Job Coaching – The most common training programme is training for a specific job. The superior closely observes the new recruit when he is actually working in the plant, office or in the field. He gives instructions and guidance and also demonstrates as to how to do the job effectively. In the case of sales people, the supervisor travels with sales person in the marketplace and meets different types of customers. He closely observes the sales interviews and gives feedback after every sales call. He also answers tough questions from customers and guides the sales person in making effective sales call.

b. Apprenticeship – Industrial organisations require large number of skilled people and such training is provided by organisations or it is imparted by government agencies. Apprenticeship programme provides classroom teaching and job experience.

c. Understudy – A selected person is specifically designated as the heir apparent and he works under as an assistant to the current job holder. He learns by experience and observations. The advantage is that the training is conducted in a practical and realistic situation and the person learns from the rich experience of the current job holder. The disadvantage is that the manager may neglect the trainee and the trainee may also learn bad practices from the manager.

d. Job Rotation – In job rotation, the trainee is rotated periodically from one job to another job and he gets a general understanding of how the various operations are carried out in the company. The advantage is that the learning takes place in actual work situation.

e. Special Projects/Assignments – The trainee may be given special assignment or he may be nominated as a member of a special project. The trainees gain knowledge about the assigned work and also learn as to how to work with others.

f. Selective Reading – Selective reading may include reading professional journals and books connected with the job. Many executives become members of professional associations and exchange information with other members.

g. Peer-to-Peer Training – Peer-to-peer training is a method through which employee can learn from each other and from their experiences within the same functional level. Peer-to-peer training provides interactive learning experience against the traditional instructor-oriented approach. In traditional method, there is certain amount of hesitation/inhibition between trainee and trainer.

Peer-to-peer training aims at peer level guidance and coaching on specific aspect of the job. Further, the new employee can reach out to the peer to clarify any doubt.

Advantages of peer-to-peer training are-

(i) Improves the technical competency of all concerned,

(ii) It improves job satisfaction, morale and confidence level of the peer (trainer) as he is given additional responsibility to coach a new employee,

(iii) Team building as they spend time together,

(iv) Lower cost as the training is given by the employee of the company and external trainer is not involved.

h. Cross-Functionality – The employee gets an opportunity to work in different departments and gain practical experience. Cross-functionality helps in personal growth of the employee as he develops expertise in another function. At senior level, it gives leverage to a person since he expertises in more than one function. This can be used as a HR tool to motivate employees and increase loyalty to the organisation. It has been observed that many production/sales managers have become successful HR managers in the industry.

2. Off-the-Job Training Methods:

a. Lectures:

Lecture is a simple way to provide knowledge to a group of people. It is theoretically-oriented and practical aspects are often ignored. In spite of these defects, lecture method forms the cornerstone of various training methods. Audio-visuals are used as supplementary to the lecture method. Visual aids such as filmstrips, slides, charts, posters are capable of making lectures more interesting.

b. Special Courses:

Special courses are organised by companies in many ways. The company may organise certain training programmes such as working capital management, selling techniques, managing receivables, effective communication, etc., for the benefit of employees and the programmes will be conducted by in-house faculty, i.e., senior managers and HR department. Organisations like Tata Group, SBI, and LIC have trainers attached to training department for conducting training programmes for employees.

Some organisations work with management institutes and universities and establish a course or series of courses to be conducted by instructors of these institutes. Nowadays, many companies send employees for training programmes conducted by universities, management institutes and management associations like BMA, AIMA. The duration of the training is 2-3 days. Lecture is a simple way to provide knowledge to a group of people.

c. Conferences:

In conference method, the participants pool their ideas and experience in attempting to arrive at methods of dealing with problems which are common subject of discussions. Conference may include buzz sessions which will have small groups of four or five persons for intensive discussions. The small groups then report back to the whole conference with their observations or questions. This allows the trainees to look at the problem from a broader angle. The disadvantage is that the conference may not meet the needs of the participants and they may feel that the whole programme is not useful to them.

d. Case Studies:

A case study is a written account of an actual situation. The case may be related to general management, marketing, distribution, production, finance or HR functions or a combination of several functions. The participants may form small groups and discuss the case thoroughly and come out with recommendations for solving the problems stated in the case.

e. Brainstorming:

Brainstorming stimulates creative thinking. The participants have to come out with as many ideas as possible for solving a problem. At this stage, ideas are encouraged and criticism is discouraged. Later, these ideas are critically examined and few ideas are selected for implementation. This method encourages teamwork, group participation and involvement of participants in solving special problems facing the organisation.

f. Simulation:

In this method, instead of taking participants into the field, the field is simulated in the training session itself. Simulation is the presentation of real situation of organisation in the training session. Two simulation methods of training are role playing and business games.

g. Role Plays:

The purpose is to increase the skill of the trainees in dealing with other people. Role plays are used in human relations training and sales force training. It involves spontaneous acting of a realistic situation involving two or more persons under classroom situation. In the case of sales people, role plays allow participants to learn and strengthen their selling skills. For each role play background scenario, salesmen and customer briefs are prepared and detailed guidance is also given to the salesperson and customer. One of the persons play the role of a salesperson and other that of customer.

The salesperson has to sell a product or service while other trainees in the group serve as observers. The trainer observes the interview and gives instant feedback to the salesperson and customer. In the subsequent interview, the roles are changed and each and every trainee gets the Opportunity to play the role of a salesperson and customer. The participants learn from each other’s experience. Role plays are extensively used during training programmes in pharma companies.

h. Management Game:

Management game has been devised to simulate the problems of running a company or even a particular department. Management games are used for training on investment strategy, collective bargaining, mergers and acquisitions etc. Gaming involves several teams and each team may represent a firm or department.

Each team discusses among themselves and makes decisions on matters such as pricing, level of production, investment etc. Each team is competing with other teams and each firm’s decisions will affect the result of others. All the firms’ decisions are fed into a computer and the computer provides the results and the winner is the team which accumulated highest profits.

i. Sensitivity Training:

Sensitivity training is method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interaction. The focus is on helping the individual to develop better interpersonal relationship. T-group (T for training), is a small group of ten to twelve people supported by a professional behavioural scientist who act as trainer for the group.

He merely creates the opportunity for group members to express their ideas and feelings freely. The individuals are required to focus on behaviour. Through interaction, they learn more about themselves. It has been observed that the participants develop significant changes in attitude and behaviour after attending such programmes.

j. Vestibule Training:

Vestibule training is widely used in training employees like clerks, bank tellers, machine operators, testers, typists etc. The conditions prevailing in an office/factory are duplicated in a classroom (files, equipment, PC) and instructions are provided to the trainees. Theory can be translated into practice through vestibule training. It is an effective method especially when many employees have to be trained at the same time.

k. In-Basket Exercises:

The trainees are provided with a basket or tray of papers/files pertaining to their area of operation. They have to study the papers and make recommendations to solve the problems. The recommendations received from different trainees are studied. Such solutions are prepared in the form of a report. It is a very simple and effective method to learn about company policies, procedures and solving problems.

l. Teletraining:

In teletraining, the trainer from a central location teaches a group of employees at remote locations by making use of televised hookups. Video conferencing allows people in one location to communicate live with people in another location/country.

m. Internet Based Training:

Internet based training is becoming popular in our country. The employee can take online courses from company’s intranet offering or from vendors who provide such facilities. Computer based training makes use of interactive systems to provide knowledge and skills to employees.

n. Fishbowl Exercises:

In this case, one group of participants that form the discussion group sits in the inner ring of the conference room. The second group of participants i.e. the observers sit in the outer ring. The participants in the inner ring are given a subject for discussion and the outer ring makes observations. Subsequently both the group swap position. The participants learn by exchanging information and constructive feedback This is known as fishbowl exercise because the way people observe fish in a fish bowl, the outer ring of participants observe the inner group

o. Blended Learning:

Blended learning combines online training, teleconferencing and traditional class room instructions.

Methods of Training and Development

Method # 1. On-the-Job Training:

The motto of such training is “learning by doing.” On-the-job training methods are those which are given to the employees within the everyday working of a concern. It is not only without any complications but also a money-saver. Both the proficient and semi-proficient employees can increase their output through their method. The employees are trained in the actual working scenario. The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on-the-job.

The four techniques for on-the-job development are as follows:

a. Coaching – Coaching is a training method that is particularly beneficial when inadequate performance is an impediment. Coaches are typically experts who are outside consultants most of the time. Coaching is the best technique for on-the-job training, especially for top management positions as it leads to one-on-one interaction, which can be done at the convenience of the top manager, can even be done on phone or through e-mails and chat. It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert, helps in identifying weaknesses, and allows focus on the area that needs improvement.

b. Job Rotation – For any executive, job rotation provides a window to see how other departments function, especially when these are departments he/she has to regularly deal with. It helps the employee better understand his/her problems and processes, which allows for better and more flexible working relationships going forward.

c. Job Instruction Technique – This focuses on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills, and attitudes development.

d. Mentoring – The process of mentoring is a continuous process that takes place between a senior and junior employee. Through this process, a junior employee receives proper guidance about his/her functioning and how the organization achieves its vision and mission. The meetings are not as structured and regular as they are in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company.

Method # 2. Off-the-Job Training:

Off-the-job training is also called vestibule training, i.e., the employees are trained in a separate area (a hall, entrance, reception area, etc., known as a vestibule) where the actual working conditions are discussed, or at times, simulated. These typically include workshops, seminars, conferences, etc. Such method requires substantial investment and is effective if and only if large number of employees have to be trained within a short time span.

A few popular methods of off-the-job training are as follows:

a. Sensitivity training – This involves nurturing social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility so that people understand themselves and others more.

b. Transactional analysis – This is a procedure that entails that trainees receive adequate inputs so that they can analyze and understand other’s behavior. Every social interaction involves a motivation from one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person which is called transaction.

c. Lectures/talks – Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of a listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Usually, in a lecture, a trainer begins by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training. There are some variations in the lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.

d. Games and simulations – These are usually aimed at enjoyment and are at times unstructured. Training games are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in the trainee’s job. It deals with imi­tating or passing judgments on how events might occur in a real-life setup.

e. Conferences – Usually, in a conference, experts belonging to diverse disciplines voice their opinions on a given topic. They fall back upon their work experience and research results. The employees get a feel of the real world and are encouraged to perform properly when they take part in these events.

f. Seminars – Seminars are organized from time to time by professional organizations so that practicing managers are aware of the developments achieved in a particular area.

g. Team discussions – By conducting team discussions, team spirit and a feeling of unity is inculcated among the executives across functions, which ensures that common goals are achieved with a spirit of camaraderie.

h. Case study – This technique is typically adopted in management institutes which occupy trail-blazing positions. The cases may be entirely different from the situation one may face in the organization, but the purpose of the case study method is that it sharpens one’s analytical abilities.

i. Role playing – In this type of activity, participants are assigned roles within situations and are asked to react to one another. At times, roles are interchanged to give employees an understanding and appreciation about other’s roles and this also helps develop interpersonal and negotiation skills.

j. Group decision-making – Subordinates, peers, or external consultants convey opinions which the trainees decide upon. In this, each member of the group undertakes the responsibility for the decisions taken and as a large number of people participate in the decision-making more alternative solutions result.

The personnel manager, in consultation with the departmental manager, decides which type of training would be best for the training need that needs to be filled. The personnel manager might even engage an external corporate trainer to the actual training. However, once the training is complete, it is imperative for the personnel manager to take feedback from the employees undergoing the training, as that is the only way the effectiveness of the same can be judged.