The rod shaped bacterium bacillus anthracis cause the disease anthrax. Animal obtain the disease from spores and infected carcasses.

In sheep and cattle, the bacterium causes acute fatal septicemia. The disease can pass on to human beings by contact with infected animals, their discharges, contaminated animal products or spores. Man to man, infection is rare.

Three common forms of disease in human beings are:

(i) Cutaneous Anthrax:


Spores enter skin through abrasion or wounds. They produce fluid filled indurated malignant Carbuncles or pustules associated with fever and toxaemia. Untreated, the infection may spread internally causing death.

(ii) Gastrointestinal Anthrax:

It occurs due to ingestion of infected meat and other articles contaminated with anthrax spores. They enter submucosa of gastrointestinal tract producing oedema, induration, necrosis, haemorrhages, and toxaemia. Obstruction of bowels is common. Fatality is 25-60%.

Pulmonary or inhalation Anthrax. (Woolsorfer’s Disease or Pneumonia):


Inhalation of dust having anthrax spores produces the diseases. The bacteria enter lymph spaces; produce pneumonia like symptoms with difficult breathing fever, hemorrhages, cyanosis, shock and death. Immediate treatment with antibiotics can give relief. The effective antibiotics are can give relief. The effective antibiotics are ciprofloxacin, deoxycyclin and amoxycycline.

Disease caused by other bacteria’s are:


Salmonella typhi. Pneumonia – Diplococcus pneumonia. Leprosy-Mycobacterium leprae. Tuberculosis-Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Whooping cough (Fertussis)- Bordertellal Haemophilus Pertussis. Cholera-Vibrio cholera. Diphtheria-Corynebacterium diphtheria. Tetanus (Black Death)- Pasteurella (=yersinia) pestis. Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) Streptococcus scarlatina Relapsing fever (Tck fevr)- Borrelia recurrentis Syphilis-Treponema Pallidum Gonorrhoea-Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (VD). Bacteria influenza-Haemophilus influenza (=Bacilus haemophilus). Bacterial (Meningococal) Meningitis-Nesseria meningitides. Peptic ulcers-Helicobacter pylori. Dysentery-Shigella dysenteriae. Gas Gangrene-Clostridium perfringens. Vaginitis-Gardnerella vaginalis. Strep Throat (Upper Respiratory Tract)- Streptococus pyogenes. Reheumatic fever-subsequent to pharyngeal infection from streptococcus species. Anthrax (cattle sheep)- Bacillus anthracis. Black leg (cattle)- Clostridium chauvoei. Brucellosis (Cattle, Goats)- Brucella suis. Abortion (Domesticagted Animals) – Salmonella abortusovis, S.Dublin, etc. Listeriosis (calf, sheep, chicken)- Monocotygenes species. Fire blight (apple, pear) – erwinia amylovora. Tundu of wheat- Corynebacterium tritici. Bacterial blight of rice-Xanthomonas oryzae. Crown gall-Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Citrus cankar-Xanthomonas citri.


Chronic Diseases:

Some pathogens are not killed inside phagocytic cells. They produce chronic diseases of long during i.e. Mycobacterium leprae, M.tuberculosis, Salmonella tyuphi, Yersinia pestis.