Enlist the Common Respiratory Disorders and Discuss their Prevention and Cure

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Common Respiratory Disorders- Prevention and Cure:

Tuberoculosis or TB:

TB is caused by bacillus bacterium, mycobacterium tuberoculosis. When lungs are affected by this bacterium called pulmonary TB. Infection occurs through air. The bacteria produce a toxin called tuberoculin. Pulmonary TB is characterized by fever, coughing chest pain and blood stained sputum.B.C.G. (Bacillus Calmette Guarin) vaccination is used a preventive measure. Drugs like streptomycin, rifamycin, para-amino salicyclic acid is prescribed to the patient to cure from the disease.

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Emphysema:

It is permanent abnormal pathological inflation of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles due to degeneration of alveolar septa. There is a little alveolar elasticity. This dicreses the surface area for gas exchange and causes severe hypoxia(less oxygen in blood).In cigarette smoking person, the inhaled smoke increase in number of pulmonary macrophages. The macrophages attract leucocytes which release proteosases to elastin protein. Emphysema can be degrading prevented by antibiotics and oxygen therapy.

Pneumonia:

Pneumonia is an inflammation of lungs with accumulation of mucus/fluid in alveoli and bronchioles so that breathing becomes difficult. It is of several types – Common pneumonia caused by Gram (+) bacteria, Streptococcus pneumonia. Other bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma also produce the disease. The disease of types – bronchopneumonia (young children, eldery persons) and lober pneumonia (10-50 years). The disease is transmitted by droplet of sputum. There is sudden chill, chest pain, and cough with mucoid sputum, rise in temperature, rapid shallow breathing and low oxygen level in blood due to poor gaseous exchange. Abdominal distension is also seen. Useful drugs are erythromycin, tetracycline, sulphonomide, etc.

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Whooping cough (Pertussis):

It is a cough with inspiratory whoop caused by bacillus bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The chidren are usually affected. It spreads through contact and drop infection. Immunization (DPT) reduces the intensity of the disease. Drug like erythromycin is used to control the disease.

Bronchial Asthma:

It is characterized by narrowing of bronchi, the spasm in bronchial muscles and difficult in breathing. There is intense coughing and difficulty in exhalation. The mucous glands produce more mucous that clogs bronchioles and bronchi. Exposure to allergin (dust, pollen grain, low temperature, certain food etc.) should be avoided. Bronchiodilators, inhalers and antibiotics are given for relief and protection against infection.

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Diptheria:

It is caused by a Gram positive bacterium, Coryne bacterium diptheriae. The bacteria infect upper respiratory tract that produces pseumomebrane in the throad. This membrane obstructs breathing causing hypoxia and suffocation. The children upto age 5 are affected.Tripple antigen or DTP (Diptheria, Pertussis and Tetanus) vaccine is given to prevent the disease. Antibiotics such as pencillin and erythromycin are used to cure the disease.

SARS (Severe Actue Respiratory Syndrome):

It is a viral disease. The corona virus causes this disease. It spreads rapidly. It infects upper respiratory tracts in humans.

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