Counseling is an integral part of guidance programme. The aim of guidance is to understand and help student and that is the first thing a guidance worker must do. If he has accurate and reliable information about the student he will be able to get a vivid picture of the individual. All significant and comprehensive information are essential to know and understand the individual well. Any worthwhile counseling programme should concentrate upon the individual and his problems.

In the counseling programme the following two types of techniques are to be taken into consideration.

1. Individual Technique:

Counseling is the most important technique which can be designed for work with pupils individually.

2. Group Technique:

Group guidance is another most important technique which can design appropriate work with pupils in group, with community group in mobilising and making available school and com­munity resources and services.


Now let us sec what the processes of each of these techniques involve. Counseling is the core of the entire guidance programme. It has been considered the most vital and intimate part of the guidance programme Counseling has been defined as a face-lo-face relationship in which growth lakes place. It implies a relationship between two individuals in which one gives a certain kind of assistance to the other. According to Wren Counseling is a personal and dynamic relationship between two individuals an older more experienced and wiser (counselor) and a younger less experienced and less wise (counselee). The later has a problem for which he seeks the help of the former. The two work together so that the problem may be more clearly defined and the counselee is helped to a self-determined solution. Counseling process involves consultation, mutual interchange of opinions and deliberating together.

The counseling relationship is a friendly, permissive and accepting relationship, not a one-way advice giving situation. The aim of counseling is self-understanding, self-acceptance and self-realization.

For Williamson, counseling is a personalized and individualized process designed to aid the individual to learn school subject matter, citizenship facts and other habits, skills, attitudes and beliefs which go to make a normally adjusted person. Thus, counseling has great educational importance for aiding individuals to eliminate or to modify those dis­abilities which act as obstacles to learning and building up desirable attitudes and skills. This involves helping the individual.

1. to understand what he can do and what he should do.


2. strengthen his innate abilities.

3. understand the opportunities open to him.

4. handle his difficulties in a rational way.

5. develop self-concept and make his own decisions on problems.


6. plan on the basis of self-understanding accept responsibility

and take action on the plans.

The major elements in counseling involve:

1. Two individuals one seeking helps and the other, a professionally, trained person who can help the first.


2. The purpose of the meeting is to assist the counselee to solve his problems independently.

3. A relationship of mutual respect between two individuals is established. The counselor must exhibit an attitude of friendliness and cooperativeness and the counselee in return should have trust and confidence.

4. The counselor is to locate problems of the counselee, help him to set up goals and guide him through difficulties and problems.

5. Counseling allows the client to act freely whatever he likes while at the consultation.