1. The properties of matter are the characteristics, which help us to identify them. Matter has both chemical and physical properties.
2. Chemical properties describe how a substance reacts chemically with another. They deal with the molecular composition of matter.
3. Physical properties can easily be seen or measured. They do not depend on the molecular composition of matter.
4. Substances, which break easily, are called brittle substances.
5. Substances, which can be beaten into sheets, are called malleable substances.
6. Substances, which can be drawn into wires, are ductile substances.
7. Substances that change their shape and size when an external force is applied and which regain their original form when the force is removed, are elastic substances.
8. Substances, which absorb moisture from the air, are deliquescent. Substances that lose moisture are efflorescent.
9. The process of intermixing of molecules is called diffusion.
10. Substances, which quickly change into vapour, are called volatile substances.
11. Substances, which allow heat or electricity to pass through them, are called conductors.
12. Substances, which can burn, are called combustible substances.
13. Substances, which catch fire easily, are called inflammable substances.
14. Opaque substances do not allow light to pass through. Transparent substances allow light to pass through. Translucent substances allow some light to pass through.
15. Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume. Specific gravity indicates how many times a substance is heavier than water.
16. The temperature at which a liquid freezes is called its freezing point. The temperature at which a solid melts is its melting point.
17. The temperature at which a liquid changes to vapour is called its boiling point.