Classifications of Kitchen equipments
All kitchen equipments have been classified in various ways.
I. Mechanical, Electrical and Gas Equipments
1. Mechanical appliances: Used for chopping, grinding, beating, peeling, cooking and serving utensils.
2. Electrical appliances: Electric Oven, Refrigerator, Mixer, Toaster, Hot plate, Heater, Electric kettle, hot food Cabinet etc.
3. Gas appliances: Gas stove, cooking Range and Oven.
II. Essential and Luxury Equipments
Another classification of kitchen equipments comprises of innumerable items from pots and pans to Refrigerators. These may be divided into (1) Essential and'(2) Luxurious Equipments. The need for these equipments would differ with the size of the family, their activities, requirements and their financial capabilities.
III. Major and Minor Equipments
Kitchen equipments can also be classified as (1) Major and (2) Minor kitchen equipments.
Major Kitchen Equipments
3. A Sink
4. A Table
5. A Cooker
6. A meat safe cupboard and Rack.
7. A Mixer-cum-Grinder
8. An Oven
Minor Kitchen Equipments
1. Pots of various sizes
2. Pans of various types such as sauce pan, frying pan, baking pans and roasting pans.
3. Sets of Jugs
4. Sets of basins
5. Trays such as Cake tray, Vegetable tray etc.
6. Bowels for mixing food stuffs
7. Tins for storage
8. Measuring equipments- Print measure, ounce measure, measuring cups, tablespoons, tea spoon, weighing machine.
9. Boards- Chopping board, kneading board, pastry boards.
10. Rolling Pins- Sieves, juice extractor, lemon squeezer, Jelly mould, set of grinding stove.
11. Knives- Vegetable knife, egg slicer, doughnut cutter, Pastry cutter, Biscuit
12. Spoons and ladles- Tablespoon desert spoon for mixing, wooden spoons.
13. Tin openers and bottle opener, Cork screw.
14. Refuse Bin.
15. Cloths- Dish cloth, kitchen cloth, dusters roller towels, Oven clothes.
Cooking and Serving Equipments
This category of equipments is classified according to the cooking and purpose.
IV. Cooking Utensils
1. Pressure Cooker
3. Coffee percolator
4. Idli steamer
5. Rice cooker
6. Milk boiler
7. Baking dishes
8. Non-stick utensils- pans of various types.
9. Cook and serve vessels.
1. Glass wares
2. Silver wares
3. Plates of different sizes
4. Cups, bowels, saucers
6. Teapot set
7. Different types of dishes
8. Knives, Forks and Spoons
10. Table decoration etc.
Cost of Kitchen Equipments
The cost of various kitchen equipments is influenced by certain factors:
1. On the size, weight and the make.
2. Geographical barrier- It is cheaper in the place of production.
3. Regional imbalances in demand lead to differences in the price of an item.
4. It is cheaper, if purchased from the wholesaler.
A large variety of mechanical appliances are used in the homes for cutting, chopping, peeling, grinding, beating juice extracting and so on. It ranges from a teaspoon, knives and crushers to pressure cookers and idli steamers. Today, modern technology has also made the availability of such appliances, built of different materials, which helps in operation, maintenance and durability of the product. Some of the popular mechanical appliances used in homes are discussed below:
1. Pressure Cooker
Pressure Cooker is modern and most popular cooking equipment used in homes today. It works on the principle that steam is created and held within the pan, creating high pressure. This raises the temperature above the normal boiling point and shortens the cooking time.
Pressure Cookers are pans made of aluminums, cast or pressed and of stainless steel. They vary in size from 1.5 liters to 12 liters depending upon the manufacture. Apart from the heavy bottomed containers, it has a wooden handle, and a lid with a rubber gasket which firmly fits with the container. On the lid, there is the control weight, placed on the control pivot to check the escape of steam.
1. Foodstuff to be cooked should be put in the cooker and filled half, if liquids are being cooked, two-third in case solid materials are being cooked.
2. Fit the Rubber Gasket to the lid and close the cooker firmly, fitting the lid on.
3. Put the Cooker over the gas stove on high flame.
4. When a loud hiss is heard, start to time the cooker. Turn the flames down, to keep up a steady hiss.
5. Keep timing, according to the material being cooked.
6. When the required time is over, put off the flame.
7. Cool the cooker for sometime, to let the steam pass off completely before opening.
8. If you are in a hurry to open the cooker, you may put the cooker under the water tap for cooking it.
9. Finally, when the hissing sound dies down, put off the control weight and remove the lid carefully.
1. A pressure cooker can cook a variety of dishes as rice, kicker, Dalai, preparing pulses, vegetables, making jams and marmalades, preparing baby foods, sterilizing milk, bottles etc.
2. It can also cook many dishes at a time as in stacked containers, thereby saving time, energy and fuel.
3. A cooker takes comparatively much less times to cook than any other cm equipment.
4. The nutritive value of food stuffs in retained, as it is cooked in closed container.
5. Food cooked in a pressure cooker remains warm for sometime and this ii prevents re-heating of food.
6. Even, the need to stir frequently is eliminated.
1. The pressure cooker should be cleaned with warm soapy water after use.
2. The rubber gasket should be checked periodically for any cuts or damage should be hung dry after use.
3. To prevent any discoloration in the inside of the container a small piece of lime or tamarind may be kept in the cooker.
4. The weight valve should be checked regularly and occasionally cleaned by soaking it in Kerosene.
2. Sandwich Toaster
A Sandwich toaster is very popular kitchen equipment in modern urban families of today. Delicious, stuffed sandwich can be prepared within a very short time without much strain. There are two types of sandwich toaster- a mechanical one, used on the stove and another, electrically operated one. A little oil, butter or fat is brushed to the insides of the toaster. Then the prepared sandwich is kept inside the toaster and closed. The mechanical toaster is then grilled over the flame till golden brown colour is obtained.
3. Milk Boiler
A milk boiler is a double-walled vessel, where water is filled in the space beta the inner and outer vessels. Milk is poured into the inner vessel and cooked. The presence of water in the outer part of the inner vessel prevents milk from over-heating or sticking to the bottom of the vessel.
4. Pots and Pans
Pots and Pans are the most essential equipments used in the kitchen. They are made of different materials as aluminums, steel, iron, brass and copper. Recent technology has made the availability of non-stick cookware’s, which reduced the consumption c and oils thereby contributing to less expenditure on it. Pots and Pans are available various sizes and used according to the amount of food to be cooked. It is cleaned hot soap water.
5. Grinding Stones
Generally grinding stones of many varieties are used in India for grinding masalas preparing flours and batter for Idlis, dosa’s and Vadas. They may be made from heavy, black or grey granite, lighter red sand stone or even marble. Now electrically operated grinding stones are available for both commercials and household use. Though, these may be a little expensive ones yet it relieves the strain of such chores.
Knives of many varieties and sizes are available in the market. They may be made of steel, with plain or serrated edges and used for cutting vegetables, fruits, slicing breads or eggs and even spreading butter or jam. Out of which the palette knives are invaluable for many purposes, such as mixing pastry, cleaning round basins and removing cakes and buns from baking pans and in frying, to loosen the cooked food from the pan. Cleaning and care of knives are the easiest ones; they may be washed with hot soapy water, rinsed thoroughly and dried with a soft, neat cloth.
Apart from such equipments, there are other minor kitchen equipments that are mechanically operated. They are food crusher, churns, scraper, peeler, mincer, boards, sieves, strainers, spoons and ladiles, squeezer, juice extractor, jugs, basins, bowels, trays etc. All these have to be cleaned immediately after use and stored properly.
7. Electrical Appliances
With the development of technology, innumerable electrical kitchen appliances are now been used in modern homes. Starting from Refrigerator a two decades back 15 micro- ovens have become a common use in kitchens today.
We shall be discussing about a few most popular, electrically operated kitchen appliances.
Refrigerator is one of the most important and useful equipment of a kitchen. It is used for:
1. Preserving perishable food stuffs and maintaining their natural properties. This saves a lot of time and energy by preventing frequent shopping.
2. Supplying cold water, which is of great demand during summer season?
3. Enhancing the taste of certain foods such as milk, cold drinks and fruit juices.
4. Preventing food wastage as the surplus amount could be preserved properly for the next use. This indirectly saves a lot of time and energy, as it reduces the number of visits to the market.
5. Entertaining guests in a better way with less effort and money.
Refrigerator works on the principle of cooling caused by evaporation. When a liquid evaporates, it absorbs heat and when it condenses back to liquid, it gives out heat. In a refrigerator, a liquid called as a refrigerant is made to circulate round it. The most widely used refrigerants are liquefied gases like ammonia ethyl chloride etc. As this liquid through the freezer, it is evaporated and absorbs heat from the food. This takes place in the evaporator the cooled pipes in the freezer. It then gets condensed into liquid, out heat absorbed at freezer, though the condenser coils at the back of the equipment circulation of the refrigerant is maintained by a motor- driven compressor, operated electricity. This cycle of evaporation and condensation goes on, keeping the food
The body or cabinet of the refrigerator is made up of steel, with a synthetic en finish. The inner lining is made up of fiber glass, which forms a good insulator. The too is well insulated and contains a rubber gasket, which runs down on the outer edge of the door to make it airtight. The freezer compartment and the ice trays are made anodized aluminums. Racks or shelves are made up of aluminum or are chromium in some refrigerator glass elf is found over the vegetable drawer. The knobs, chilltrays and crisper trays are made of light-weight plastic. The door may be closed by a mechanical lock or magnetically.
Procedure of Use
1. The refrigerator should not be over filled.
2. The food materials should be arranged according to the priority of cooling.
3. Cover all foods well before you place them in the refrigerator.
4. Frequent opening of the door should be avoided.
5. Hot food should be cooled, before putting it in the refrigerator.
6. Strong smelling foods should be wrapped and covered well to prevent their odour from affecting the other foods.
7. Do not touch the fridge with wet hands and bare foots as this may cause electric shocks.
Maintenance of a Refrigerator
1. The Refrigerator should always be kept clean and dry.
2. The outside of the equipment can be wiped off as frequently as possible to dust and dirt. Similarly, the inside of it should be cleaned immediately, if any gets spilled, or moisture accumulates.
3. Regular defrosting may be carried out once a week or whenever required. So, advisable to have a thorough cleaning of the refrigerator inside and outside, this process. The inside may be washed with a warm solution of washing the outside of it may be washed with hot soapy water and rubbed with a soft
4. Furniture cream can be used to the outside, enamel part of the refrigerator to a good, glossy appearance.
8. Electric Mixer-cum-Grinder
This equipment, popularly called as ‘Mixis’ is a boon to the housewife. It relieves the drudgery of the grinding stones, and other household chores. It performs a number of functions as blending, mixing, grinding, whipping, liquidising, grating, mincing meat etc. Now, a unique kneading attachment to the equipment makes it, a mixer cum a ‘complete kitchen machine’.
It is a motor-driven appliance, having a closed metal base. It can run for nearly half-an-hour non-stop. It is provided with stainless steel jars and a variety of blades to suit the nature of work to be performed. According to the type of manufacture, this equipment is provided with a single or more jars to be used for different type of work. Then there is switch/volume to control the speed of the motor as low, medium and high.
Care and Cleaning
The first care to be taken is to go through the instruction manual, before operation. All do’s and don’ts should be strictly followed before, then and after using the equipment. However certain principles are to be followed for proper maintenance of the equipment:
1. The jar or the container should not be removed from the base while the motor is running.
2. The motor should not run continuously for a long time to make it over heated.
3. Operate at lower speed, and then increase the speed.
4. Suitable blade should be chosen for good results.
5. The motor should not be over loaded with large amount or inadequate quantity of food stuffs.
6. The container should be cleaned with warm soapy water immediately after use.
7. The external surface of the appliance should be wiped dry with a damp cloth. The mixer should never be immersed in water for cleaning.
Heaters or the electric stoves are the simplest of appliances and also one of the most hazardous. It consists of a China plate in a circular shape, provided with grooves which accommodate the heating element. The two terminals of the element are connected to supply line. The outer body of the stove is made of metal or asbestos and the heating element of nichrome wire.
Care and Cleaning
1. For safe use, always attend to repair immediately.
2. Take care, not to spill any liquid on the element.
3. All the electric connections must be tight and insulated.
4. Clean stove after use
The electric ovens consist of heating units of light construction. There are units- an upper and a lower unit. The upper unit contains two coils, while the lower contains a single coil. Both the units are used for heating the oven. The temperature controlled by a thermostat. The walls are so insulated that it prevents the transmission heat.
Care and cleaning
1. The oven should not be wiped, when it is still hot.
2. Burnt food should be removed regularly.
3. Spilled food should be removed as soon as the oven has cooled down.
4. After every use, the entire oven has to be cleaned thoroughly.
Electric toasters have become quiet popular in modern homes to provide a quick toasted bread for a hurried breakfast. Usually toasters are available in two forms ordinary ones- where the slices are to be taken out when done and (b) the automatic or pop-up type, where the toasted slice is thrown up automatically. These are made of metals like steel or chromium plated.
Care and Cleaning
1. Wipe the outside of the toaster with a damp cloth.
2. It should be inverted and tapped gently to get rid off burn bread cumbs.
3. When the toaster is on, never insert a metallic object like a spoon, knife etc. Gas Appliances
A few appliances are also used in the Kitchen, which are operated by gas-that is L.P.G. (Liquid Petroleum Gas) or by coal gas.
12. Gas Stove
A gas stove is a very common item in every urban and rural homes of today, usually has two burners, which are called as ‘Cookers’. The gas to be used as fuel stored in a thick walled metallic cylinder under very high pressure. The capacity of cylinder is approximately 16.5 kg. and it is attached to the cooker through a regulating valve and a rubber pipe. The burners consists of a switch which releases gas into burner, as well as it controls the amount of flame required as ‘On’, ‘Sim’ or ‘Off’.
Care and Cleaning
1. Gas stove has to be cleaned regularly.
2. Utmost care has to be taken while opening and closing the gas burner and cylinder
3. The Rubber tube has to be checked regularly for any cracks with soap bubbles a has to be changed at least once in a year.
4. The burners can be soaked in kerosene for sometime and then wiped dry.
5. The external part of the gas stove can be cleaned with warm soapy water.
A cooking range is multi-purpose equipment, generally used in sophisticated kitchens. It can be operated on gas, kerosene and also electricity. The top of the range consists of two or more burners. Then, there is a grilled chamber and on the bottom an oven for baking. In other words, this equipment can also be called as a modified Oven. Because of its simultaneous cooking, procedures, a lot of time is saved.
Care and Cleaning
1. Immediate cleaning is necessary after every use.
2. Spilled food must not be allowed to dry.
3. Warm soapy solution should be used for cleaning.
4. The burners and the rubber pipe should be periodically checked and cleaned.
5. If it operates on electricity, care should be taken to see that it is properly earthed, to avoid receiving shocks.