1. It is federal in nature with unitary features.
2. The President of India is the constitutional head of executive of the union.
3. The real executive power vests in the Council of Minister headed by the Prime Minister and is responsible for the Lok Sabha. k
4. Directive Principles of State Policy are incorporated.
5. It is the longest written constitution in the world.
6. It consists of 22 chapters, 400 Articles and 10 Schedules
7. It is neither too rigid nor too flexible.
8. It guarantees single citizenship to all citizens.
9. It established the parliamentary system of government in India.
10. It introduced adult franchise and the system of joining electorates.
11. It established an independent Judiciary; the Supreme Court acts as a guardian of the constitution.
The constitution offers all citizens some basic freedoms. These are guaranteed in the constitution in the form of Fundamental Rights which are follows-
1. The right to equality.
2. The right to freedom.
3. The right against exploitation.
4. The right to freedom to religion.
5. Cultural and educational rights.
6. Right to constitutional remedies.
The Right to Property used to be. a Fundamental Right but 42nd Amendment of the constitution reduced this right to the status of a legal right only. During an emergency period these rights can be suspended.
Duties of a citizen of India–
Duties of a citizen of India were not included in the original constitution. These have been added by the 42nd Amendment of the constitution in 1976. There are 10 fundamental duties.
The persons who were born in India and are living in India are the citizens of India. As a citizen these persons have certain rights and responsibilities.
Citizenship can be acquired by birth, descent, registration naturalization or when India acquire new territories. Citizenship can be lost by renunciation,, termination or deprivation.
Directive Principles of State Policy–
The Directive Principles are meant to be directives to the governments at all levels in India.These principles help the governments to make social and econof1 reform in the country.
Sources of Indian Constitution
In the constitution of India many concepts have been borrowed from the constitutions of the different countries of the world which are as follows- 1 Parliamentary system of government – 2.Directive principles of State Policy – 3 Federal system –
Amendment of the Constitution
There exists a provision in the constitution for its Amendment: Article 368 of the Constitution lays down that any member of either House of Parliament can initiate amendment by introducing a Bill containing the proposal. The amendment Bill after it has been passed by both the Houses of Parliament by majority of two-thirds of member present and voting becomes law after receiving the assent of the President.