1. Parliamentary System of Government:
The central as well as State Governments are parliamentary like the British government. The head of the nation is no doubt the president, but the real power resides in the cabinet which is responsible to and removable by the popularly elected Lok Sabha. The provisions for a president does not make the Constitution presidential because his position is , more or less, that of a constitutional head, like the British Monarch.
2. Indian nation is a federation with a strong centre :
Most of the conditions essential for the formation of a federation are present in India and therefore, the framers of the constitution gave India a federal from of government. The base and source of provincial as well as central government are the people who elect their representatives. There is a statutory division of power between the centre and the States which cannot be normally changed by the centre. The Supreme Court of India is authorised to declare any infringement of encroachment by either partner in the sphere of the other as unconstitutional or ultra vires.
3. Secular State :
Secularism means that the State is neither religious nor irreligious nor antireligious but is neutral in all religious matters. The Constitution has incorporated many fundamental rights to ensure the secular character of the State. All persons are entitled to profess, practise and propagate a religion of their choice. Every religious denomination is entitled to manage its own religious affairs. Religious institutions are entitled to own, acquire and administer the property for religious or charitable purpose. There cannot be any State religion. Religious instructions cannot be imparted in educational institutions run and maintained by the State. Religious instruction or religious worship cannot be made compulsory to educational institutions which are either recognised by the State or receive aid from the State funds.
4. Fundamental rights and Duties :
The inclusion of fundamental rights of citizens in a Constitution is regarded as absolutely essential to achieve the ends of democracy. In a democracy, government is by the people, of the people and for the people. In a democracy, the citizens have the right and privilege to promote their personality and interest without infringement of other’s rights.
The assured enjoyment of rights are regared as an acid test of a civilised society Rights are considered as life veins of democracy. There are 7 Fundamental Rights guaranted by the Constitution to the citizens of India, which are Right to Equality, Right to Freedom Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights Right to property and Right to Constitutional remedies.
In the beginning, duties of the citizens had not been specified. Through the 47th Amendment of the Constitution in 1976, the list of 10 duties has been added. Rights always imply duties. Unless the citizens fulfill their duties towards the nations, the integrity of the nation will be in jeopardy.