Read this article to learn about the Akhyativad and Viparit Khyativad!
Short notes on the Strategy of Planning in India since, 1951!
Since, 1951, India has completed Nine Five Year Plans. Tenth Plan is currently under execution. The guiding principles of the India’s Five Year’s Plans are provided by the basic objectives of growth, employment, self -reliance and social justice.
Cotton pliers have got narrow and angulated working end. They may have serrations on the inner aspect of the beaks for better holding of material.
This instrument is used to reflect light onto the field of operation, to view the cavity indirectly, and to retract the cheek or tongue, as necessary. It consists of stainless steel handle with a round mirror which is angulated/straight to handle.
Enamel, if present, should be beveled to improve retention. Some authors prefer to place bevel as long as the cavity for better esthetics and bonding especially in class V.
The performance budgeting process starts at the macro level when a blue print for a 3/5 year period is prepared at the corporate headquarters. The broad corporate objectives are conveyed to the Zonal Offices and from there to the Regional and Branch Offices.
In the typical hierarchical pattern of an organisation, communication has been viewed as proceeding in three directions: upward, downward and laterally. Downward communication is that which flows from a superior to subordinate as from the board of directors to executives, from a general manager to departmental foreman to his workers.
Formal communication is that which devices support from the organisation structure. It is associated with the particular positions of the communicator and the recipient in the structure.
This model is based upon the assumption that the man is a rational being and will try to maximise his pay off. He will choose an alternative that would give him the most benefit.
Douglas McGregor stressed the importance of a manager clarifying his assumptions about the nature of man within the work situation. If a manager understood his subordinates, he would be able to select a motivational network that would better direct effort toward desired goals.