Short notes on Vroom’s expectancy model:

This model is based upon the assumption that the man is a rational being and will try to maximise his pay off. He will choose an alternative that would give him the most benefit.

The theory is based on an individual’s perception that a certain type of behaviour will lead to a certain type of outcome and his personal preference for that type of outcome. There are certain elements of this model:



This is person’s perceptions of the likelihood of a particular outcome resulting from a particular behaviour or action. The likelihood is probabilistic in nature and describes the relationship between an act and an outcome.

For example if a person works hard, he may expect a pay raise or just a promotion with a certain degree of likelihood for each of these two outcomes.


This factor relates .to person’s belief and expectations that his performance will lead to a particular desired regard. It is the degree of association of first level outcome of a particular effort to the second level outcome, which is the ultimate reward.


For example, working hard may lead to better performance, which is first level outcome, which may result, in reward, which is the second level outcome. If a person believes that his high performance will not be recongised or lead to expected rewards he will be motivated to work hard for better output.


This is the value a person assigns to his desired reward. He may not be willing to work hard to improve performance, if the reward for such improved performance is not what he desires. It is not the actual value of the reward but the perceptual value of the reward in the mind of the worker that is important.

A person may be motivated on to work hard, not to get pay raise but to get recognition and status. Another person may be more interested in job security than with status. Accordingly, according to his model of motivation, the person’s level of effort (motivation) depends upon:


i. Expectancy:

A worker must be confident that his efforts will result in better productivity and that he has the ability to perform the task well.

ii. Instrumentality:

The worker must be confident that such high performance will instrumental in getting desired rewards.


iii. Valence:

As the relationship suggests, the motivational force will be highest when expectancy, instrumentality and valence are all high. The management must recognise and determine the situation as it exists and take steps to improve upon these factors for behaviour modification.

If a worker exhibits a poorly motivated behaviour it could be due to:

(i) Low effort Performance expectancy:


The worker may lack the necessary skills and training in order to believe that his extra efforts will lead to better performance. The management could provide opportunities for training to improve skills in order to improve the relationship between effort and performance.

(ii) Low performance:

Reward instrumentality relationship. Similar performance may not lead to similar rewards. The reward policy may be inconsistent and may depend upon factors other than simply the performance, which the worker may not be aware of or may not ‘Consider fair.

The performance appraisal methods and the associated performance rewards may not be equitable. The management must re­evaluate the appraisal techniques and formulate a policy that strengthens performance – reward relationship as just and equitable.’


(iii) Low reward valence:

Since the managers may look at the value of a reward differently than the worker, the management must investigate the desirability of the rewards which are given on the basis of performance. While monetary benefits may be more desirable for some workers, the need to be formally appreciated may be more valuable rewards for others for similar task oriented achievements.

The Vroom’s model tries to explain as to what factors affect a person’s choice of a particular course of action among all available alternatives and why a person will be better motivated toward achievement of certain goals.