World War II begun in 1939 In war the Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy had combined against France. Britain and their Allies.
With the outbreak of hostilities Britain made India as party to it declaring India to be a ‘country at war” Obviously, Britain made such a declaration unilaterally in utter disregaul to the Indian public opinion In protest against such an action the Congress [ministries in the provinces resigned the office.
b. Why dul Cripps’ Mission visit India?
The Second World War had important consequences on the national movement of India. In fact, the Indian national movement reached a new height with the beginning of the war.
The Indian National Congress while condemning the fascists expressed its sympathy for the Allied Powers fighting against Germany, Italy and Japan Simultaneously the Congress wanted an assurance from the British government to the effect that it would withdraw from India as soon as the War was over.
The British, however, were unwilling to concede to the demal for withdrawal. In a situation like this Gandhiji started Satyagraha against the British condemning their autocratic rule equivalent!) the Nazism of Hitler in Germany.
However, in 1941, when World war II took a new turn with the participation of Japan, the British Government in England was compelled by the circumstances to open negotiations with nationalist leaders.
In fact, Japan’s occupation of Singapore an Burma, not far away from India made the British anxious about the security of their Indian empire. To meet the situation the Brits government appointed Cripps’ Mission to consider the new concessions that may be granted to the Indian people
c. The Proposal of Cripps:
Cripps’ proposals included interim long-term settlement. These were as follows : (1) The goal of India was to be the attainment of Dominion Status’.
(2) The Indians were to be given the right to frame the Dominion Constitution after the War.
(3) The Constitution-making body would constitute elected members from the British territories as also the representatives free the Native States.
(4) Any Province or State would have the rid to reject the Constitution.
(5) For the present the British Govt was to continue as before. The responsibility for the security and defence of India was to be retained by the British Govt.
Rejection of Cripps’ Offer:
Cripps’ proposals were unacceptable for both the Congress and the Muslim League. Of course each In rejected the offer on different grounds. The Congress objected! the provision of interim arrangement in which the British were! control the defence of the country.
Further, the Congress could through a conspiracy of partitioning India in the proposals made by Cripps. Gandhiji referred to Cripps’ “offer’ as a ‘post-dated cheque on a crushing bank’. The Muslim League had its own argument!! rejecting the Cripps’ proposals.
The Muslim League rejected 1 offer on the ground that Cripps’ offer did not include any provision for the formation of Pakistan. Thus the Cripps’ Mission in India was a failure and it could satisfy none of the political.