a. Cripps’ Mission:
In the midst of the World War II when a new situation developed with the participation of Japan in the War the British government was compelled to open negotiations with the Indian leaders.
It was in this background that a Mission was sent under the leadership of Sir Richard Stafford Cripps’ to India. This was known as the Cripps’ Mission.
The Cripps Mission’s proposals included interim and long-term settlement. These were as follows: (1) the goal of India was to be the attainment of the Dominion Status.
(2) The Indians were to be given the right to frame the Dominion Confutation after the War.
(3) The constitution-making body would constitute elected members from the British territories as also the representatives from the Native States.
(4) Any Province or State would have the right to reject the Constitution.
(5) For the present the British Govt, was to continue as before. The responsibility for the security and defence of India was to be retained by the British Govt.
b. Quit India Resolution:
With the participation of Japan there seemed the possibility of an invasion of India by Japan.
In such a critical situation the Congress session in Bombay (1942) took a momentous decision which was to guide the future course of the national movement.
On August 8, 1942 the Congress adopted the historic ‘Quit India Resolution’ which declared among other things that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. It was further resolved that the Congress was to launch a movement on the lines suggested by Gandhiji.
It may be noted here that Gandhiji now was in a militant mood, and was in favour of a mass struggle on the widest possible scale. In a historic speech Gandhiji raised the slogan ‘Do or die’.
He categorically declared: ‘Let every Indian consider himself to be a free man. .. Mere going to jail would not do.’