The movement of non-alignment gave birth to certain other concepts which in fact attempt either to expand or to give additional dimensions to non-alignment. These concepts are :

Panch sheel refers to the five principles of peaceful co-existence which were enunciated in the preamble to the agreement signed between India and China on April 29, 1954 with regard to Tibet. These principles are :

(a) Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovere­ignty.

(b) Mutual non-aggression.


(c) Mutual non-interference in each-other’s internal affairs.

(d) Peaceful co-existence.

(e) Equality and mutual benefit.

There is indeed nothing new in these principles. They were enun­ciated and inscribed on rocks by Ashoka the Great about 2.200 years ago. They are also enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations in some form or the other.


What is important about them emphasis was laid on them once again in the settlement of international issues. They provided a set of well-defined principles on the basis of which international issues should be resolved. And, they did have their impact which is clear from the fact that they were referred to in many national, bilateral and multilateral declarations.