(i) Speaking-Listening:

An organised face-to-face communication, such as listening to a lecture or to a ratio programme is known as speaking listening communica­tion. In this communication process, there are chances, where the listener, gets an opportunity to share the feelings of the sources of communication, just like eye to eye contact between two individuals.

(ii) Visualising-observing:

In this type of communication, the producer and the .observer are physically separated from each other. Even then the observer is able to feel underlying ideas conveyed either in a television or in a cinema, shows. In visualising-observing communication there are also chances of face-to-face contact between the source and receiver, as in case of dramatisation.


(iii) Writing-Reading:

Here the sender is physically separated from the receiver and yet they are in a position to enjoy and appreciation the ideas and feelings of the writer.

From the types of communication as discussed above we can con­clude that communication is a process of interaction, a sharing or a cyclic process, which serves in development of learning.

Communication technology, which manifests itself through television, radio, print technology, satctrites, computers and microproces­sor, through the merging of these technologies constitutes the communica­tion revolution in the field of education. Communication technology has begun to make its presence felt in every walk of human life. From the forecast of election results to drawing of personal horoscopes, selection of candidates for election tickets to selection of marriage partners, computers are being used. There is no denying of the power and potential of micro electronics.


Already, the work-place homes and social relations are undergoing a tremendous change with the introduction of computers and other automated gadgets. Now educational production centers have been set up to prepare different educational programmes for children’s and adults. In India, the central Institute for Educational Technology and the NCERT are coordinating the programmes. The CIET set up in 1984 is aided by State Institutes for Educational Technology in six Stales.

The Development and Educational Communication unit of the Indian Space Research Organization and International Agencies like the United Na­tions Development programme, UNESCO, and the Asia Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development are all working for promotion, under­standing and utilization of educational technology for the spread of educa­tion.

The CIET provides the entire hardware to the SIETS, and finances and training are made available through it. Most SIETS have started producing their own programmes in their own languages and culture. These programmes are beamed for six hours daily in these stales. DECU formed in December 1983, is engaged in aiding CIET in the production of programmes, adaptation of video hardware, communication research and training. The science programmes for SIETS and produced by DECU.