Some sociologist, educationists, psychologists, anthropologists and rural sociologists have described the process through various models. Their usefulness lies in the manner in which they are used.

(1) Aristotle’s Model


Aristotle says that all these three ingredients or elements are essen­tial for communication. These can be organised to study the process through the person who speaks, the speech he produces and the per­son/audience who listens, such communication takes place in a face-to-face situation, or in direct communication. The speech is either a message, an idea, a thought or a feeling.


(2) Westley and Machean Model

This also has five elements/ingredients on the lines of the Shammon and Weaver’s Model. Here, the sender encodes the message which is passed through a channel and is then decoded and its meaning is drawn, after which the message is clear to the receiver.

(3) Shammon-Weaver Model



If we translate the source into speaker, the signal into speech and destination into listener we have the Aristotle’s Model plus-two mere ingredients : a transmitter which sends out the message and the receiver which catches the message to take it to its destination.

(4) Leagan’s Model:

It has six elements.



It is more or less designed on the pattern of the Weslley and Machcan’s Model. Though the terminology is different, most of the ele­ments are common. Audience response is the sixth element apart which Leagans says that it is vital to the process especially when it is meant to bring about change in people.