19 interactive solutions for reduction of Poverty in India
Govt. Policy Regarding Reduction of Poverty
The Govt, of India took certain measures to reduce poverty, inequality of income and wealth in its five year plan periods. Followings are some steps taken by the Govt, from time to time.
1. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP):
Integrated Rural Development Programme was initiated in 1976-77 in 20 selected districts and further in 1980 it was started in all blocks of the country.
The objective of the programme is to enable the selected families to cross the poverty line through a strategy of productive assets endowment. During the Seventh Five Year Plan period an outlay of Rs. 2.462 crore was provided for the programme and the target was to cover 20 million beneficiaries.
2. National Rural Employment Programme (NREP):
National Rural Employment Programme was launched in October 1980. The basic objective of the programme was to generate additional gainful employment in the rural areas to bring about a general improvement in the overall quality of life in rural areas.
3. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP):
The RLEGP was launched on 15 August 1983 to generate additional employment in rural areas. The basic objective of the programme was to improve and expand employment opportunities to create productive and durable assets for strengthening rural infrastructure and to improve the overall quality of life in rural areas.
4. Jawahar Rozgar Yojna:
Jawahar Rozgar Yojna has been introduced in 1989-90 with a purpose of generating more employment in the country. To create 837 million mandays of employment a sum of Rs. 2623 crores has been provided.
5. Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment:
TRYSEM was launched on August 15, 1979 with the sole aim of generating employment opportunities for the unemployed educated rural youth.
The main thrust of this scheme is on equipping rural young in the age group of 18-35 years with necessary skills and technology to take up vocations of self employment in the broad fields of agriculture and allied industrial activities.
6. Development of Women and Children.
This programme was launched during the Sixth Plan on a pilot basis in 50 districts and was continued in the Seventh Plan. The object of the programme is to improve the lot of rural women through the creation of income generation activities in a district.
7. Drought Prone Area Programme:
DPAP was started in 1970-71 in the areas which are chronically affected by the drought. The main object of this programme is to organize permanent works to obviate scarcity relief and to generate adequate employment through labour intensive schemes.
8. Desert Development Programme:
DDP was started in 1977 on the recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture. The main objective of DDP was on controlling further diversification of desert areas and raising the productivity of local inhabitant.
9. Minimum Needs Programme:
Keeping in view the basic notion of ‘Garibi Hatao’ and growth with justice “minimum needs programme” was introduced in Fifth Five Year Plan. The programme aims at 100% employment in the age group of 16-24 by 1990.
10. Employment Exchanges:
Government has set up about 890 employ exchanges offering information on the possible vocational avenues. These exchanges not provide employment directly but are of great assistance in directing the job-se to the possible areas of employment.
11. Employment Guarantee Scheme:
This Scheme has been launched in states, such as, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Kerala, Rajasthan etc. Under the schemes unemployed persons are given economic assistance.
12. Development of Animal Husbandry and Agriculture:
In 1992-93, under Milk Development Plans of Operation Flood about 54 lakh persons were employment. Under agriculture extension training programme, by 1994-9″ employ opportunities to 16,000 persons were provided.
13. Employment Assurance Scheme:
The Employment Assurance Scheme (was launched in 1994 in 1752 backward blocks in the country. The main objective to provide 100 days of unskilled manual work to the rural poor who are s employment.
14. Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY):
This Yojana was implementing 1993 to give employment to more than 10 lakh people by setting up seven lakh m enterprises during Eighth Plan in industry, service and business. In 1995-96 it generated employment for 3.75 lakh people. It provided employment to 2.1 lakh proper day in 1999-2000.
15. Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PMIUPEP):
This programme has been implemented in 1995- 96. This programme at td provides employment to the urban poor. It will cover 50 lakh urban poor living 345 towns. The central government will incur an expenditure of Rs. 800 crores on this programme during a period of Five years. It provided employment to 2.85 lakh 1999-2000.
16. Self-Employment Programmes:
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna (SGSY). Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and allied programmes as Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM), Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) and Million Wells Scheme (MWS) have been restructured into a single self-employment programme called the Swarnajayanti Gramya Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) from April 1999.
17. The Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojana:
This plan began on December 1, 1997 whereas launching of this Yojana, previous programmes meant for providing employment to urban employed like Nehru Rozgar Yojana and Prime Minister Integra- Urban Poverty Eradication Programme were merged into it. It aims at providing self-employment or wage employment to urban unemployed and underemployed persons.
It comprises of two plans: (i) Urban Self-Employment Programme-(USEP) and (ii) Ur Wage Employment Programme-(UWEP). Of the total expenditure on the Yojana, percent will be borne by the centre and 25 percent by the state governments. In year 1997-98, a sum of Rs. 125 crore was spent on this yojana.
18. Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana:
Jawahar Rozgar Yojana has been restructured as Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana with effect from April 1999. This Yojana has been formulated to improve the quality of life of the rural poor by providing the additional gainful employment.
19. Other Programmes:
Govt, of India launched other employment and poverty alleviation programmes as under:
(i) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY).
(ii) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awas).
(iii) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana-Rural Drinking Water Project.
(iv) Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY).
(v) Autyodya Anna Yojana.
(vi) Jai Parkesh Rozgar Guarantee Yojana (JPRGY).
(vii) Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY).