The following steps have been taken by Govt, to increase employment opportunities:

1. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP):

In 1978-79, government of India introduced IRDP to create full employment opportunities in rural areas. Under this programme agriculture, animal husbandry, forests, fisheries, small and cottage industries, construction of roads and canals etc. are to be developed in all the 5111 development blocks.

Moreover, to provide more employment, in the Seventh Plan a sum of Rs. 312 crores was spent on this programme. It benefited 182 lakh families. In 1995- 96 about 21 lakh families have been benefited.


2. Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP):

This programme was launched in 70 such districts of 13 states as were prone to drought. The programme has proved fruitful particularly in removing seasonal unemployment. In Sixth Plan, the programme provided 17 crore and 70 lakh man-days of employment.

In the same period, a sum of Rs. 301 crores was made on the programme. In Seventh Plan, Rs. 474 crores has been spent for the programme.

3. Training for Self-Employment:


This programme was launched on 15th August, 1979 by the Government of India. It is called National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). The main objective of this programme is to reduce unemployment among the youth. During Seventh Plan about 11.6 lakh youth were imparted training under the programme.

During training period, young men are given financial assistance. On completion of training, they are asked to prepare project report. Arrangements are made to get them financial assistance from the banks. Every trained youth is given a financial help varying from Rs. 3,000 to Rs. 5,000 to start his work.

In the Seventh Plan, under this programme, Composite Rural Training and Technical Centres (CRTTC) were set up to impart training to rural youth. In 1995-96 training was to be provided to 2.8 lakh rural youth under this programme.

4. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana:


The Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was started on 28th April 1989. The objective of this Yojana is to provide employment to at least one member of each poor rural family for fifty to a hundred days a year at a work place near his residence. A special feature of the scheme is that 30% of the employment generated will be reserved for women.

The Central government will finance 80% of the programme and the state government will have to bear only 20% of the expenditure of this scheme. In 1989, National Rural Employment Programme and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programmes were merged in the yojana.

5. Employment in Foreign Countries:

Government also helps people to get employment abroad. Special agencies have been set up to recruit people to serve in gulf countries like Kuwait, etc.


6. Self-employment to Educated Unemployed Youth:

In 1983, a scheme namely self-employment of educated unemployed was initiated. Under this scheme, loans up to Rs. 25,000 are given to those educated unemployed who have no other financial resources.

This scheme is enforced by District Industries Centers. Government will give 25 percent as subsidy of the loans given by the banks under this scheme.

7. Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY):


This Yojana was started in 1989. There are three schemes under it. (1) Under the first scheme, subsidy is given to urban poor to set up micro enterprises. In 1995, under this programme, 1.25 lakh families have been benefited. (2) Under the second scheme arrangements have been made for wage-employment to labourers in cities with less than 10 lakh population by providing Indian Economic Development and Elementary Statistic ‘them basic facilities.

In 1995, under this scheme 93 lakhs man-days of employment have been provided. (3) Under the third scheme, urban poor in the cities are to be provided employment opportunities in jobs like house repairing etc.

8. Small and Cottage Industries:

In order to reduce unemployment, government if has made special efforts to develop small and cottage industries. In 1995-96 about 33 lakh persons were employed in these industries.


9. Development of Organized Sector:

Many people are getting employment in organized public and private sectors. In 1995-96, nearly 340 lakh persons got employment in large industries.

In 1961, organized public sector provided employment to 70 lakh persons; now it provides employment to 1 crore and 92 lakh persons. Likewise, in 1961 organized private sector provided employment to 50 lakh persons; in 2000 it provided employment to 89 lakh persons.

10. Employment Exchanges:

Government has set up about 890 employment exchanges offering information on the possible vocational avenues. These exchanges do not provide employment directly but are of great assistance in directing the job-seeker to the possible areas of employment.

11. Employment Guarantee Scheme:

This Scheme has been launched in man; states, such as, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Kerala, Rajasthan etc. Under the scheme unemployed persons are given economic assistance.

12. Employment Assurance Scheme:

The Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) was launched in 1994 in 1752 backward blocks in the country. The main objective was to provide 100 days of unskilled manual work to the rural poor who are seeking employment.

13. Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PMIUPEP):

This programme has been implemented in 1995-96. This programme aims at to provide employment to the urban poor. It will cover 50 lakh urban poor living in 345 towns. The central government will incur an expenditure of Rs. 800 crores this programme during a period of Five years.

14. The Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojana:

This plan began on December 1, whereas launching of this yojana, previous programmes meant for providing employment to urban unemployed like Nehru Rozgar Yojana and Prime Minister Integrate Urban Poverty Eradication Programme were merged into it.

It aims at providing self-employment or wage employment to urban unemployed and under- employ persons. It comprises of two plans: (i) Urban Self- Employment Programme-(USE and (ii) Urban Wage Employment Programme-(UWEP). Of the total expenditure on “Yojana, 75 percent will be borne by the centre and 25 percent by the state governments. In the year 1997-98, a sum of Rs. 125 crore was spending on this yojana.

15. Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana:

Jawahar Rozgar Yojana has been restructured as Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana with effect from April 1999. This Yojana has been formulated to improve the quality of life of the rural poor by providing the additional gainful employment.

16. Other Programmes:

Govt, of India launched other employment and poverty alleviation programme as under:

(i) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)

(ii) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awas)

(iii) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana-Rural Drinking water project.

(iv) Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)

(v) Autyodya Anna Yojana.

(vi) Jai Prakash Rozgar Guarantee Yojana (JPRGY).

(vii) Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY).