Ways and means to remove unemployment in Rural Society of India removal of unemployment is the responsibility of the state. The Constitutional of India has the “Directive Principles” of the State and enjoined this duty on the State Government.
Part IV of the Constitution of India in its article 41 lays down that “right to work, to education and to public assistance” in certain cases the State shall within limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of underserved want.
In Rural Society we have already seen that there is a good deal of unemployment. This removal of unemployment is necessary for the prosperity of the nation. For this, the following steps have to be taken:
1) Improvement in the agricultural system:
We have already seen that the agricultural system in India is backward and underdeveloped. This backwardness is responsible for a lot of unemployment. If the unemployment has to removed, the system of agriculture has to be modernized and improved, for this the following steps to be taken:
1) Holding should be consolidated and made economic. 2) Methods of agriculture should be improved and as far as possible farmers should be freed from dependence on nature. 3) System of crops should be planned scientifically and improved. If more crops earned they would provide more employment. 4) The farmers should be provided with good seed, good fertilizer, healthy animals, modern implements and tools etc.
2) Adequate arrangement of facilities of irrigation:
In villages the agriculture very much depends on nature. If rains fail, the crops are destroyed. This brings about a good deal of unemployment. Methods of irrigation should be made more modern. They should also be adequate so that it may be possible for people to water their fields.
3) Increasing the area of cultivable land:
To day in the villages there is a great pressure on land. The area under cultivation is not sufficient to provide food to all the people of this country. Barren land should be broken and made fertile. Other methods should also be made for improving the area of cultivable land which is not normally fit for agriculture, also be improved and made fit. This would remove unemployment in the villages.
4) Setting up and develop the cottage and village industries:
In village, people have seasonal employment in agriculture. Apart from it all the persons do not have avenues for the employment. What is needed is to set up of industries so that those who do not have land are employed in it. Apart from it, the agriculturalists during dull season should get employment in these industries. Women and land less laborers shall also be able to get employment if industries are set up.
5) Improving the means of transport and communication:
In villages there is need to have proper roads and places where offices and stores for seeds etc, may be set up. Public construction should be undertaken in the villages to provide employment to the idle hands. This would improve the employment position in the village. Apart from it, it would also add to the prosperity of the villages.
6) Construction of public Transports, Roads etc:
It is necessary to improve the means of transport and communication. This would have two fold advantages. Firstly, the village people shall be able to send their products to markets for sale and secondly, they shall also be able to go to such other places where they can get employment. Apart from it, this would also provide employment to many persons who shall engage themselves in the task of transporting these people.
7) Organization of the agricultural market:
There is need to organize markets for the agricultural product. At present, there is dearth of such market. This situation creates difficulties for the agriculturalists. On the one hand, they are not able to get proper price and on the other hand they have to suffer from other handicaps. If markets are organized, they would provide employment to certain hands and also help the agriculturalists to get proper price for their labor.
In fact India is such a vast country and unemployment is so large that “Herculean” efforts shall have to be made to surmount this degree. Various economists and social thinkers have suggested various ways for it. Many of these ways have also been incorporated in the Five Year Plans. In spite of these Five Year Plans employment position is far from satisfactory.