What do you understand by Cultural Evolution of man ?

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Man evolved from ape-like ancestors by the gradual process of change of form. This is called biological evolution where in structural changes took place. We have also studied the advantages (uniqueness) and limitations of these changes. Because of their free hands and well-developed brain, men constantly engaged themselves in the pursuit of development of tools and appliances with the help of which they could bring about improvement and refinement in their life-style. They started specializing various forms of art. A particular kind of culture is the outcome of human endeavors towards refinement and specialization. Emergence of different types of culture is called cultural evolution.

One of the earliest but significant human activities lay in tool-making. This Required thinking and manipulation of hands. In fact such activities had stated two million years ago by Australopithecus. Just about this stage, their food habits were also changing from vegetarian to meat eating. This called for hunting in an organized way. Probably as a result of this, there were social interactions and need for communication. Special weapons were developed by them. As a means of communication they also worked on the development of language. They started moving in-groups for food and better shelter. Prehistoric men migrated in great numbers about a million years ago from the treeless zones to forest areas in North Africa, China, Indonesia and North Europe. This was just about the time when fire was discovered. They then learned how to make fire when necessary. Taming of fire was a landmark in the history of mankind. With the help of fire they cooked food and protected themselves from the bitterness of cold weather.

They made spears for hunting and wheels for transportation. With the available technology they could obtain food, develop shelter and have clothes of animal hides. Assured of these benefits, they found time to think about artistic aspects of life. One of the things that they did was paintings in the walls of caves. Their contemplation led to the development of sophisticated weapons and other tools. They made bows and arrows with the help of which they killed animals. Some animals were also domesticated for a variety of purposes such setting milk and flesh whenever required.

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