Economically important marine fishes of India are as follows:
The oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps are important species constituting about one third of the total marine fish. The clupeids are chiefly represented by the sardines (Sardinella) sardine (Kowala) etc. Sardins represented the important fishery.
The Mackerel Fishery:
The Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger Kanagurta is an important commercial fish.
Duck Fishery: The Bombey duck fishery is mere restricted to the west coast, but about 10% of the total also comes from the East cost of India.
Marine catfishes of commercial importance belong to families, plotosidae and techysuridae. Important species areplotosus canicus, P. augularis, Tachysuras sona, t. maculates. T. dussaurieri and t. jello. Cat fishes predaceous and carnivorous. Feeding mostly as fish and crustaceans.
These are snake like fishes. Three species of eels muraenesox talabonoides, m.cinerus and Anguilla bengalensis are economically important fishes. These are bottom feeders and the food consist of 90% of fish and 10% prawns and crustaceans.
The Ribbon Fishes:
These are thin, ribbon like, silvery in color with prominent canine teeth and are also called ‘hair tails’. Four species of ribbonfishes are mainly found. These are mainly Trichiurus haumela. T. safala, T. intermedious and T. muticus. These are predaceous, carnivorous and sometimes cannibalistic. These are voracious eaters and they feed a fish.
The Sole Fishes:
The flat fishes or sole fishes have a dorsoventrally compressed body, with an asymmetry of varying degree, having both the eyes on the left or right side of the hand. These are bottom living fishes. These are represented by psettodes, pseudorhombos, solea, paraplagusia and cynoglossus.
Several species of crustaceans including prawns, peneids, lobster and crabs are include in the marine catches. The important species are peneus indicus, p. monodon, p. japanicus, metapeneus dobsoni, M. affinis, M. brevicornis, Palaman panulirus, Scylla servata, Metunus palasicus.
A large number of molluscan that can be utilized in various ways occur abundantly in coastal water. There include lamellibranches, Gastropodes and Cephalopodes. Several species of oysters, Calms, Snails and Cuttle fish are used as food by man.
Chank is based on the sacred chank Xancus pyrum (Turbinella pyrum) which is widely used as a trumpel in temples. These are also cut into pieces and used as bangles. Flesh of chank also used as food. Chank shell powder is used in some medicines.
Since population is increasing, there is demand for more and more food. It needs more and more attention to increase the percentage. Since India has a large coastal line, the prospect of marine fish culture is bright. But it needs political will, modern technology and a commercial depth of mind towards marine fish culture.