In social life, individuals continuously come in contact with one another. They co-operate and compete with one another for their respective interests. They also struggle with each other for their rights. These are the fundamental processes through which men interact and establish relationship with each other in society. Interaction refers to an action done in response to another action. When this interaction repeats itself then it is called as social process.

Society contains hundreds and perhaps thousands of socially defined relationships. It is impossible to make a detailed study of each and every social relationship. The various kinds of social relationships or interaction on processes can broadly be divided into two main-categories: One aspect of social interaction is associative.

The associative processes of social interaction are of positive type of interaction. The associative process is always worked for the integration and benefit of society. These processes bring progress and stability in society. Associative processes are also called as conjunctive processes. The associative processes include co­operation, accommodation, adaptation, adjustment, integration and assimilation. Here we shall discuss about two types of interaction. They are co-operation and accommodation.

1. Cooperation

Co-operation is the first fundamental and associative process of social interaction. The work “Co­operation” has been derived from the two Latin words. ‘Co’, means ‘together’ and ‘Operate’ means ‘to work’. Hence, co-operation means working together for the achievement of a common goal or goals.


According to Merril and Eldredge – Co-operation is the continuous and common endeavor of two or more persons to perform a task that is commonly characterized.”

Characteristics of Co-operation:

1. Co-operation is one type of social interaction, which takes, place between two or more individuals.

2. Co-operation is a conscious process.


3. Co-operation is an associative process.

4. Co-operation is a personal process.

5. Co-operation is a continuous process.

6. Co-operation is a universal process.


Role and Importance of Cooperation:

Cooperation is indispensable for both society and individual. It creates direct relationship between individual and individual, group and group and between group and individual. It controls the behavior of individual. It brings all round development of society as well as individuals.

2. Accommodation

Accommodation is another associative process of social interaction. Sometimes new conditions and circumstances arise in the society. These new conditions lead to conflict. The resolution of these conflicts is called accommodation. In other words, accommodation is social adjustment.

According to Mac Iver and Page: – “The term accommodation refers particularly to the process in which one can attain a sense of harmony with his environment.


Ogburn and Nirnkoff say, “Accommodation is a term used by the sociologists to describe the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups.”

Characteristics of Accommodation:

1. Accommodation is a associative process of social interaction.

2. It is a conscious activity.


3. Accommodation is a universal process.

4. Accommodation is a continuous process.

5. Accommodation is a mixture of love and hate.

Role and Importance of Accommodation:


1. Accommodation maintains peace and security in the society.

2. Accommodation checks conflict, competition and contradiction.

3. Accommodation brings unity and integrity in the society.

4. Accommodation resolves conflict.