Adjustment is a way of life. We feel its presence in social life. Generally, adjustment takes place in two ways adaptation and accommodation. Adaptation refers to biological adjustment. But accommodation refers to social adjustment. It is a process in which individuals or groups adjust their relationship to each other in order to overcome the difficulties, which arise in competition or conflict.
It is a process that emanate between two groups or individuals after the conflict and beginning of the urge for co-operation, sometimes-conflicting individuals feel that conflict is harmful and they develop a habit of adjustment. This process is called accommodation. Park and Burgess have said that human social organization is fundamentally the result of an accommodation of conflicting elements.
Ogburn and Nimkoff say, “Accommodation is a term used by sociologists to describe the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups.”
Mac Iver and Page say, “The term accommodation refers particularly to the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment.”
Characteristics of Accommodation
1. Accommodation is the natural result of conflict:
Accommodation is the end result of conflict. The native individuals realize the importance of accommodation and finally came to accommodation. The question of accommodation arises only when there is some kind of conflict.
2. It may be conscious or unconscious activity:
Man’s adjustment with the social environment is mostly unconscious. New born individual also accommodates himself with his family, neighborhood etc. Individual also accommodates himself within the society unconsciously. Accommodation becomes conscious only when conflicting individuals or groups make deliberate attempt to end conflict and work together.
3. It is a continuous process:
The process of accommodation is not confined to any particular time or individual. It is also not fixed to any social situation. Throughout life, one has to accommodate to various situations.
4. It is a universal process:
No society can function effectively or smoothly in a continuous state of conflict. Therefore, accommodation becomes necessary. Therefore, accommodation is found in every society and all the time.
5. It is an associative social process:
Accommodation is one of the associative social processes, which brings unity and integrity in the society. It strengthens the mutual relationship on individuals and groups.
6. Accommodation is the mixture of both love and hate:
Accommodation is a combination of the attitudes of love and hate. The attitude of love makes people co-operative and attitude of hate leads to conflict. Summer says, “accommodation is antagonistic co-operation”.
Forms or Methods of Accommodation:
Accommodation is a social adjustment, which can be achieved by a number of ways, and methods, Gillin and Gillin have mentioned, of seven methods of adjustment. They are-
3. Arbitration and Conciliation.
Role and Importance of Accommodation:
1. Accommodation maintains peace and security in the society.
2. It checks conflict.
3. It brings harmony and solidarity among various cultures.
4. It encourages integrative tendency of human beings.
5. Accommodation plays important role in resolution of conflict in society.
6. It prepares the way for assimilation.
7. It helps people to adjust the new changing conditions of society.
It maintains balance between individuals and groups and brings stability.