30 important questions on India in the Nineteenth Century: Foundation of the Indian National Congress

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1. Since when the people of India became conscious about the colonial rule? Give an example to show that the American example inspired the people.

From the early part of the nineteenth century the Indian people were becoming conscious about the British colonial rule imposed upon them.

In 1849 Gopal Hari Deshmukh published an article appreciating democracy that was established in America through the War of Independence.

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He even went to the extent of saying that the Indians one day would follow the path of the American Revolutionaries and drive the British out.

2. Mention two factors which were responsible for the growth of nationalism amongst the Indians.

Nationalists’ sentiments grew easily among the Indian people because India was unified and welded into a nation during the nineteenth century.

Another important factor that helped the growth of nationalist sentiments among the people was the introduction of Western education and thought during the nineteenth century.

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Modern education created an outlook of common interest among the educated Indians which was an essential factor for the growth of nationalism.

3. What was the role of the press in the growth of nationalist sentiments among the people of India?

Large number of nationalist newspapers came into being in the second half of the nineteenth century. In these papers the British official policy was criticized.

The newspapers also urged upon the people to unite and work for national welfare. This was how the press helped the growth of nationalism.

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4. What part did the middle class play in the growth of nationalist sentiments among the people of India?

The English educated Indians that constituted the middle class came to realize that despite their education they had no hope under the foreign rule.

They also realized that the changes the British brought about in India was to promote their own interest.

Frustration among the educated Indians ultimately created a condition in which nationalism could thrive.

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5. Why was the year 1813 important?

Two important decisions of the British government made the year 1813 very important One was that the policy of free-trade was announced abolishing the monopoly trading rights of the East India Company in India.

Second was that British government asked the Company to spend 1-lakh of rupees every year for the spread or education in India?

6. Who were the Evangelists? Who was the chief exponent of Evangelists?

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Evangelists were a group of people in England who put pressure upon the British government for the spread of education in India.

The chief exponent of Evangelism was Charles Grant.

7. Who was Macaulay? When did he present his Minute?

Macaulay was the Law Member of the Governor-General’s Council.

As the President of the Committee of the Public Instruction Macaulay presented his famous Minute in 1835.

This inaugurated the introduction of the English education of India.

8. When was the Calcutta University established? Who was its first Vice-Chancellor? The Calcutta University was founded on 24 January, 1857.

The first Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University was Sir James William Colvile.

9. Why did Rammohan Roy address social reform through religion?

India in the 18th-19th centuries represented in a society of which religion was an integral part.

Rammohan rightly thought that any attempt to reform the existing society must come through religion.

That is why Rammohan approached social reform through reform of religious superstitions.

10. Who founded the Atmiya Sabha and when? When did it become the Brahmo Samaj?

Atmiya Sabha was founded by Rammohan Roy in 1815.

The Atmiya Sabha was transformed into the Brahmo Samaj in 1828.

11. Why was the joining of Keshab Chandra Sen in the Brahmo Samaj important?

The joining of Keshab Chandra in the Brahmo Samaj was important on many counts. By his oratory the Brahmo movement earned popularity in the various parts of the country. Further, Keshab Chandra added social service and reform alongside popularizing the Brahmo religion.

12. Who was Derozio? By what name were his followers known?

Derozio, a Portuguese-Indian by birth, was a teacher of the Hindu College.

He looked upon India as his motherland and inculcated a deep love for the motherland among his students through his teachings.

The students of Derozio were collectively known as the ‘Young Bengal’.

13. Name two members of the Young Bengal. What was the impact of the Young Bengal on the contemporary society and politics?

Ramgopal Ghosh and Ramtanu Lahiri were two members of the Young Bengal.

The members of the Young Bengal wanted to judge everything by reason and not by tradition alone. This had a tremendous impact on the contemporary society and politics.

14. What Ramakrishnadeva had to say on social reform?

Ramakrishnadeva, a spiritual wonder, had no formal education. But he realized that the disparities of the caste and creed were an ill in the Indian society.

He believed that by obtaining self-knowledge and proper devotion to God men would no longer go by the levels of caste and creed.

15. What was the main point of Vivekananda’s speech at the Parliament of Religion in Chicago?

Vivekananda participated in the Parliament of Religion held at Chicago, U.S.A. in 1893.

Through his speech Vivekananda introduced the spirituality of Indian faith to the West and restored India’s past glory.

16. Name a book written by Vivekananda. What did Vivekananda aim at?

One of the many books written by Vivekananda is ‘Bartaman Bharat’.

Vivekananda programme of reform aimed at establishing a new social order based on freedom and equality. His ideal of a classless society helped the process of unity amongst the Indian people.

17. Who was pioneer in the reform movement among the Parsees? What changes took place in the Parsees society as a result of the movement?

Naoraji Furdonji was the pioneer in the reform movement among the Parsees.

The reform movement among the Parsees included society as well as the religion.

However, as a result of the socio-religious reform movement the Parsees emerged as the most advanced communities in India.

18. Who were the founders of the Theosophy Movement and when? What was the contribution of Annie Besant in the movement?

Helena P. Blavatsky and Henry S. Olcott founded the Theosophy Movement in America in 1875.

The Theosophy Movement gained considerable strength after Annie Besant joined it in 1893.

19. Who founded the Arya Samaj? Why was it founded?

Dayananda Saraswati was the founder of the Arya Samaj.

He founded it in order to rescue the Hindu society from its degeneration.

He started a tirade against the practices like caste divisions, child marriage and such other things.

20. Who founded the Prarthana Samaj? Why was it founded in 1867?

Dr. Atmaram Pandurang was the founder of the Prarthana Samaj.

The members of the Prarthana Samaj paid chief attention to social reform instead of religious reforms.

Widow Remarriage, inter-caste marriage and to discard untouched ability were the agenda of the Prarthana Samaj.

21. Who was the author of the famous book Satyartha Prakash? What was the result of the movement led by the Arya Samaj?

Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of the Arya Samaj, was the author of the book entitled Satyartha Prakash.

As a result of the movement of the Arya Samaj the Hindus revived their reverence for the Vedic religion and the social ideals.

This led to self-discovery of the Hindus from their age-old self-oblivion.

22. Who founded the Hindu Mela and when? What was the main object of the Hindu Mela?

In 1867 Nabagopal Mitra was the founder of the Hindu Mela.

The main object of the Hindu Mela was to foster the spirit of self- help.

And this was considered to be the essential to national progress and welfare.

23. What was the Aligarh Movement? Who was its founder?

The movement for the regeneration of the Muslims was begun by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

For the purpose Muhammadan Anglo- Oriental College was founded at Aligarh in present Uttar Pradesh.

The movement that began centering the institution at Aligarh came to be known as the Aligarh Movement.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founder of the Aligarh Movement.

24. Name the two repressive acts passed in 1878. What were the contents of the acts?

The Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act were the two represses Acts passed by the British government in 1878.

The purpose of the Vernacular Press Act was to deprive the papers published in the vernacular languages of the right to criticize the government.

The Arms Act was a discriminatory act which declared possession of arms by the Indians as a punishable offence. But the Act was not to be applicable on the Europeans living in India.

25. Against which two discriminatory acts did the Indian Association launch fierce movement? Who repelled it?

The Indian Association started intensive movements against two discriminatory Acts passed by the British government in 1878 like the Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act.

It was Lord Ripon who annulled the Acts in 1882.

26. When was the Indian Association established and by whom? In favor of which Bill did the Indian Association start strong movement?

Surendranath Banerjee was the initiator of the Indian Association that was established in 1876.

The Indian Association launched a strong movement in favor of the Liberty Bill.

The Bill wanted to do away with discrimination between Indians and Europeans in the matter of justice.

27. Write a note on the Dramatic Performances Act (1876).

Sarat Sarojini and Sutendra Binodini, both written by Upendranath Das, gave vent to popular resentment against racism practiced by the English.

The performance of the two dramas at the Great National Theatre created a great stir among the audience who viewed it.

The great commotion created by the performance of the dramas led Lytton’s government to pass the Dramatic Performances Act (1876).

The act empowered the government to prohibit any dramatic performance that was likely to excite feelings of dissatisfactory. Towards the government.

28. What was Wood’s Dispatch?

Sir Charles Wood, President of the Board of Control, announced the famous Education Dispatch (Wood’s Dispatch) in 1854.

The Dispatch among other things asked the British Government of India to assume responsibility for the education of the masses.

Nothing was done to this effect. But, according to the direction of the Dispatch universities were set up in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1857.

29. Write a note on the Hunter Commission.

The Indian Education Commission (1882) was also known as the Hunter Commission.

It recommended certain improvement upon the existing system of education in India.

But before anything was done to this effect Curzon’s Indian Universities Act, 1904 created uproar in the country.

30. Who was A. O. Hume? Who was the President of the first session of the Indian National Congress?

A. O. Hume was a civilian under the British Government.

He took initiative in the foundation of the Indian National Congress in 1885.

Womesh Chandra Banarjee was the President of the first session of the Indian National Congress.

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