Intelligence has been defined in several ways. There is not just one definition of intelligence; there are several of them. A few definitions are given below for your reference. In all the definitions given below you may notice the owing important characteristics of intelligence.
First intelligence is a cognitive process involving rational and abstract thinking. Second, it is goal- directed and purposeful, which means that all intelligent activities are planned each a self-determined goal. Finally, it involves social competence to help individuals adjust to their environmental surroundings.
1. Intelligence is the innate general cognitive capacity (Francis Galton, 1884).
2. Intelligence is the ability to think abstractly (Lewis Terman, 1921).
3. Intelligence is what the intelligence tests test (E.G. Boring, 1923).
4. Intelligence is a particular instance of biological adaptation (Jean Piaget, 1952).
5. Intelligence is a person’s capacity for goal-directed adaptive behavior (Robert Steinberg, and William Salter, 1982)
David Wechsler gave a commonly accepted definition of intelligence follows:
6. Intelligence is the global and aggregate capacity of the individual to think rationally, to act purposefully, and to deal effectively with the environment (David Wechsler, 1972).