What do you mean by Intelligence?

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Intelligence has been defined in several ways. There is not just one definition of intelligence; there are several of them. A few definitions are given below for your reference. In all the definitions given below you may notice the owing important characteristics of intelligence.

First intelligence is a cognitive process involving rational and abstract thinking. Second, it is goal- directed and purposeful, which means that all intelligent activities are planned each a self-determined goal. Finally, it involves social competence to help individuals adjust to their environmental surroundings.

1.  Intelligence is the innate general cognitive capacity (Francis Galton, 1884).

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2.  Intelligence is the ability to think abstractly (Lewis Terman, 1921).

3.  Intelligence is what the intelligence tests test (E.G. Boring, 1923).

4.  Intelligence is a particular instance of biological adaptation (Jean Piaget, 1952).

5.  Intelligence is a person’s capacity for goal-directed adaptive behavior (Robert Steinberg, and William Salter, 1982)

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David Wechsler gave a commonly accepted definition of intelligence follows:

6. Intelligence is the global and aggregate capacity of the individual to think rationally, to act purposefully, and to deal effectively with the environment (David Wechsler, 1972).

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