Charles Spearman advanced Two-Factor Theory of intelligence in 1927. It was a theory of trait organization based on the statistical analysis of test scores. Spearman pointed out that all intellectual activities have a single common factor called the general factor or “g” factor.
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Psychologists have devoted considerable attention to the understanding of the nature of intelligence. Is intelligence a single ability or does it con multiple abilities? Is it fully inherited or is it shaped by environmental factors?
Intelligence quotient is just a number; it was devised in 1912 by a German Psychologist, William Stern (1871-1938). It is an age-related measure of intelligence level. I.Q. is determined by child’s mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100.
Robert Sternberg of the Yale University, USA is one of the most prominent among the generation of cognitive psychologists, Sternberg (1982) asked people to identify the characteristics of an intelligent person.
The Swiss Psychologist, Jean Piaget (1970, 1972) took a different approach from that of the psychometricians to understand human cognition.
Ale notices a wide variety of individual differences in people’s intellectual abilities. Some are more intelligent than others. The differences are so much that some change the course of human civilization through their intellectual innovations, a few others even find it difficult to master a problem simple addition.
Intelligence is a complex capacity to profit from experiences and training, to adapt successfully to new situations, and to think abstractly using symbols and concepts the operational definition of intelligence is that intelligence is what intelligence tests test.
The development of formal tests of intelligence assessment is quite modern. The formal intelligence tests were developed in the early 1900s. Sir Francis Galton (1885) is considered as the father of the mental tests.
The intelligence of an individual is assessed through measuring instrument called tests. Psychologists depend on intelligence tests, as these are very helpful to assess a person’s intellectual processes.
Intelligence has been defined in several ways. There is not just one definition of intelligence; there are several of them. A few definitions are given below for your reference.