Natural Environment and Human Response of the Equatorial Region.
(a) Location: it is located between 0° to 10° north and south of the equator.
(b) Areas the Amazon basin in South America; Zaire basin (Congo basin) in Africa; Indonesian Islands, Malaysia and Sri Lanka in Asia.
(c) Natural environment (physical environment)
(i) The region has hot and humid (wet) climate throughout the year. Uniformly high temperature persists through out the year.
(ii) There is minimum range of temperature (3-5 degrees).
(iii) Rainfall is heavy and is more than 150 cm. It is convectional type and takes place daily in the afternoon accompanied with thunder and lightning.
(iv) Red and yellow colored laterite soil is found here. Due to high rainfall, the soil is leached. It is an infertile soil.
(v) Dense tropical evergreen rain forests with multiple species of trees which are hard wooded umbrella shaped are found here. The trees grow to a height of 40-50 m. There is a thick undergrowth. The forest is dark and gloomy.
(vi) There are swamps and marshes.
(vii) The area is infested with insects, pests and wild animals.
(d) Human response the equatorial region is undeveloped as the natural environment is unsuitable. The climate is hot and humid, which is not very conducive to human settlements. The forests are impenetrable as they are inaccessible. The density of population is low. The main activities of the people are hunting, food-gathering and fishing. They practice shifting agriculture in the Zaire and the Amazon basin. They do intensive cultivation in the fertile soil of the Java islands and plantation agriculture is carried on in Malaysia.