William II was directed by his dying grandfather to maintain good relations with Russia, hence after his accession, he visited Russia Bismarck and his brother also accompanied him in this journey. The Russian Czar was much pleased with him and the visit proved fruitful.

But after the downfall of Bismarck the entire burden of the fore’ policy fell on the shoulders of the German Emperor. He starts establishing good relations with Austria and Turkey and bade good- to Russian friendship.

The Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 was to be reviving in 1890 but William II refused to revise it. Gooch, an eminent history has remarked, “Czar was surprised to know it but he did not f offended.”

A politician of Russia also said that he was gratified to know that the revision of treaty was refused by William II. Thus, Russia be’ isolated began to lean towards France and at last they concluded a D


Alliance in 1893-94. It ended the isolation of France. William II never expected an alliance between France and Russia, the two rival countries.

William II was worried by this alliance and he wrote to Czar of Russia: “I am not afraid of this treaty but this alliance with a democratic France would create stir in autocratic world.”

In fact this alliance strengthened the position of France. Now the supremacy of Germany was ended in Europe and Europe was divided into two opposite military groups. But it established a balance of power which continued up to 1904 but thereafter it began to be disturbed.

Having failed to break the Anglo-French friendship, William II made attempts to break the Franco-Russian friendship. He started a correspondence with Czar Nicholas of Russia and continued it from 1904 to 1906.


This correspondence in history came to be known as Willy-Nicky correspondence. He wanted to gain the favour of Russia against Anglo- Japanese alliance.

At last both the Emperors, William II of Germany and Czar Nicholas of Russia, met at Biorko in Finland and a secret pact was made by which it was decided:

(i) If any of them was invaded by any European power, the other would help the invaded country with all her military force.

(ii) Neither country would conclude a separate treaty with any one.


(iii) Russia would try to persuade France in joining this treaty.

When Czar Nicholas returned to Russia and disclosed the terms of this secret treaty to his Foreign Minister, he condemned this treaty. France also refused to join the Biorko Pact.

Hence Czar Nicholas of Russia wrote a letter to William II about the cancellation of this pact. Consequently, the pact was broken. Thus, William II failed to gain the favour of Russia in spite of his best efforts.