List of Important Events in the History of Modern India

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The East India Company:

The British came to india as traders. It was the Eash India company was started trade with India and other parts of Asia and Africa. The East India company was founded by the merchants of London and granted charter in December 1600 A.D. by Queen Elizabeth.

It obtained concessions from the Mughal Emperors to set up factories and trade with India. After the battles of plassey and Buxur the British East India company became territorial power in India competing with the other rulers.

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As the time passed, the company gradually extended its rule over almost the whole of India. It was finally abolished in 1858 when the British Crown took over administration of British possessions in India for direct rule.

The Regulating Act (1773):

Through this law of the British Parliament India was under a definite system of Government. This law was passed because the East India Company failed to handle the problems arising in administration. This was the first direct intervention by the British Govt, in Indian affairs.

The Doctrine of Lapse:

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Lord Dalhousie (1848-56) made a principle that if any ruling prince dies without direct descendents; no adoption of an heir will be permitted and because of no heirs the state will go to the Govt. This was the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’.

The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857:

The causes of the Sepoy Mutiny were many but the principle cause was the hatred of the Indian people against British rule. The Indian native rulers were annoyed because if they had no male issue to succeed the father, the territory would merged with the British Indian territory.

Another reason was the disparity of salary and perks between the British and Indian Sepoys. Another cause was the introduction of a new cartridge supposed to be greased with the fat of cow or pig for Use in rifle, which had to be cut with teeth. Protesting against this introduction an Indian Sepoy named Mangal Pandey had to give away his eat the firing squad.

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The revolt spread throughout all the cantonments of India starting at Meerut on 9th May, 1857. Within a year the revolt was suppressed by the might of the British arms. Rani of Jhansi, Tantiya Tope and Nana Farnavis were the valiant fighters of the revolt. The failure of the revolt brought India under the object slavery of the British rule. The Company’s power was taken by the British Crown.

Indian Council Act, 1861:

The act reversed the experiment of the centralization of legislation and provinces were allowed to form their own laws according to local needs. It laid the foundations for provincial and central legislature. Few Indians were included in the legislature, so that a good understanding may be maintained between the Govt, and public.

Morley Minto Reforms or the Indian Council Act, 1909:

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The main provisions of this act were to increase the size of the Council of Governor- General and provincial councils. This act recognized the separate electorates of Mohammedan’s and Indians were allowed for appointment to the Executive Councils.

Government of India Act, 1919:

Under this Act the provincial legislatures came to be constituted with no official majority, but the official majority was retained at the centre. At provincial level Dyarchy was introduced.

The Act of 1935 (Introduced in 1937):

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This Act gave Provincial Autonomy. It had provided two features-a Federal mind and Provincial autonomy. The Federation did not come into existence. The Provincial posts were introduced but the 2nd World War brought its end.

‘Quit India’ Movement:

‘Quit-India’ resolution was passed by the All India Congress Committee’s session at Bombay on August 8, 1942. To achieve the goal, large scale non-violent mass-struggle was started. The Government in reaction arrested all the members of A.I.C.C. Mahatma Gandhi was also arrested and at once the revolution spread throughout India. The Government started merciless shooting and arrests.

Mountbatten Plan (March 1947 to July 1948):

There were communal riots in many parts of India, especially in Punjab. The Mountbatten Plan was announced on June 3, 1947. This plan proposed the partition of India into two Dominions of India and Pakistan.

The India Independence Act, 1947 was passed by the British Parliament. India became independent on 15th August, 1947. Mountbatten was retained as the Governor-General of free India, Pakistan invaded Kashmir.

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