(i) Political fragmentation:
Like Germany, Italy was also politically fragmented. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Prince.
(ii) Role of Mazzini:
Giuseppe Mazzini put his efforts to unite Italian Republic. He had formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’ for achieving his goal.
(iii) Role of Count Cavour:
He was the chief minister, who led the movement to unify Italy. He formed a tactful diplomatic alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces.
(iv) Role of Giuseppe Garibaldi:
Garibaldi also formed armed volunteers. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdoms of Two Sicilies and succeeded in driving out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of United Italy.