Propaganda was born with the birth of the social life of man. Man always wanted to make some idea as well as some goods popu­lar among his fellowmen. So he took the help of propaganda. In the ancient times it was confined to the kings and queens because they could afford to spend huge amount of money. King Ashoka sent Bhikshu to the foreign countries to propagate the idea of Buddhism. In the 2Pth century Ambassadors of the other countries perform the same function. With the development of science and the technique of propaganda this has become an art. It is made more interesting and more psychological.

Political life of country becomes meaningless without propa­ganda. In a democratic country the Government takes the help of propaganda to make their ideas popular with the people. Similarly the persons who are contesting elections make use of propaganda for making themselves known to others. The Government makes use of newspapers, radio, television and many other media of pro­paganda.

In the domain of commerce and trade competition has in­creased. A number of substitutes for the commodities have been discovered. Moreover, the markets have become bigger because of the progress of times. Consequently, the need for propaganda has increased. In the ancient times necessity was the mother of inven­tion but in the modern times invention is the mother of necessity. The things are manufactured and only later on the demand for them is created. Without propaganda, it is difficult to make the things, known to the people.

In the social life of man propaganda plays an important role. The customs rest so deep in the thinking of the people that it is very difficult for the new reforms to make a headway. People should be mentally prepared for receiving the social reforms. If they are not willing to accept the reforms the activities of the Government would be of no use. It is only through propaganda that they are made socially conscious and politically aware.


It is generally said that propaganda has been abused and so it is becoming unpopular with the people. They say that the handbills are thrown away without reading them and people do not like to read the portions of the newspapers which deal with the advertise­ment. Till man undergoes psychological change it is not possible to make propaganda unimportant. Man is found self-centered and so he is very much interested in propaganda.

Students and Politics

If this immature people take part in politics it becomes dangerous for the country. In fact politics is a dirty game in which people indulge in criticizing one another and also in adopting methods for pulling them down. That simply means that politics will become dangerous for the society if the younger generation with no reasoning power starts taking part in it. Student community can easily be excited by any politician and they may work against the interests of the country. Politics is the game of matured people who* can tolerate criticism and can give reasoned criticism of others.

The main aim of the students should be to get only education and nothing else. If they start taking part in politics their attention will be diverted from their studies, their mind will work in the wrong, direction. In educational field a student should give single minded devotion to his learning. If he does not bother about it and start discussing the problems of national importance which he can neither understand nor can he imagine. He will not be able to devote much time to his books. Politics needs that a politician should be quite popular and should develop contacts with others. For accomplishing this work he will have to devote time as well as attention and the real cause of education will suffer.


Sometimes the students will be corrupting the atmosphere of the university by bringing politics there. There will be groupism in the university and students will form political parties in collabora­tion with the teachers and consequently they will have to suffer. Politics among the teachers will make them more a lever in the hands of politicians, than the dispensers of wisdom. The studies of the students will be neglected and the teachers will be happy with their political influence.

The situation is to be checked and steps should be taken at all levels of national life. The political parties should take a joint pledge that they would not make use of the students for achieving their political goal. And if any particular political party tries to adopt these methods it should be banned.

Another step which should be taken by the college authorities is that they should stop the process of democratizing colleges and universities. Students’ unions do help in solving some of the pro­blems but they complicate the problems also. Group rivalries change themselves into actual political parties. The students should be consulted but not through their representatives. Politics in the educational institutions should be completely banned.

Another step suggested by some is that the students should be kept so much busy that they should never think of politics or any other affairs. They should be semester system and daily work of the student should have great importance in determining their success. This will keep the students on their toes and they will never get time to think of politics.


This does not mean that student should be ignorant of politics. Students are the future generation. They are to perform duties of good citizens in the state if they remain ignorant of political parties. They will never be able to discharge their function as members of the society properly. They should remain non-aligned with the political parties but take active interest in the political affairs of the country. They should remain just idle spectators of the political scene taking no sides with political factions. Theoretically it seems to be correct. But if we take the practical aspect of it some difficulties arise. We find that practical politics is not possible for the people to take in­terest and still remain away from it. Still that is the ideal course for the students and that will also realize the purpose of education.

“What is this Life if Full of Cares we have no Time to Stand and Stare”

We are living in the machine age and we expect man also to work like a machine. That is why idleness is considered both a sin and crime. Every man is supposed to work either for material gains or for advancement. We remain busy in the work and go on work­ing till we are completely lost in ourselves. This life reduces man to automation and man cannot lead a good life.

Mechanical life takes away the interest in life. If one always thinks of work one will never be able to think of bettering his mind or doing something for his fellowmen. Life becomes a dull routine and man is caught up in this routine. Naturally some of the finer qualities of mind remain undeveloped. He cannot appreciate the beauty of the flower and he cannot discover spiritual relationship between himself and Nature. He ignores the universal spirit which is found in all the things of the word.


The aim of life is not just to earn and remain absorbed in the worldly activities. That is only one aspect of life. We earn to lead a life full of enjoyments and we should not try to get wicked pleasure in robbing others of exploiting others.

It is only in the company of Nature that we can develop many qualities of mind and heart. Thoreau, the American writer was com­pletely changed when he lived amidst Nature for a few years. He became a vegetarian and developed a strong affinity with the animals around him. None can deny that we can discover books in the running brooks, tongues in trees and sermons in stones. Nature is a guide, guardian and philosopher. That means Nature can definitely have an educative influence on the human mind. Another English writer, Hazlitt thinks that while in countryside one should vegetate like the countryside flowers and plants. Nature serves as a good com­panion because it never tries to betray the man who loves it. If we do not look at Nature we become narrow minded, limited in our thinking and very much selfish and self-centered.

Modern man has become very much time-conscious. He is always in a hurry to finish his work. Russell says that man is running a hundred meter race. As a result of it we think that looking at the beauties of the Nature is just a wastage of time. But it is a mistaken view. Nature gives us healthy feeling, good outlook and also a sort of spirituality which is necessary in the life of the human beings. So life which cannot afford us to see the ocean when it bares its bosom to receive moonlight or when the winds fold their wings to take rest is meaningless. Life becomes worth living if we are in the lap of Nature and identify ourselves with its beauties.

Impact of Science on Human Life


Science has given not only material comforts and machines, it has also given scientific spirit. Scientific spirit means objectivity of outlook and the subordination of emotions to reason. It often leads to clear thinking and sound reasoning and it develops in a man the desire to know more and more.

Scientific spirit has transformed man and his relations with Nature and God. Previously man was afraid of Nature and the effects of death and diseases were not considered to be common occurrences. Rather they were thoughts to be the acts of devil. Now science has dissolved superstitions and finished blind belief, emotions have been completely subordinated and society is considered to be a mechanism of which man is a dog. That is why man is a statistical unit and his identity is gathered only from the statistical number.

One of the consequences of scientific spirit is that the outlook of man has undergone a change and it has become analytical and materialistic. Man has become earthly and so he does not believe in the superstition and traditions. Most of his activities are for material progress and material possessions. He has no fellow feel­ing, no sympathy, no aesthetic sense and no other consideration. He has developed a mind which can revise its decisions.

One of the far reaching effects of science on man is lust for power. The new discoveries and inventions have given greater scope to man to satisfy his love of power. But this love of power is bring­ing us near destruction. We have the powers of God but we are using them just like children. As a result of this man is preparing for his own destruction.


Scientific spirit has made us formal and so there is a big gap between our actions and thoughts. People have become hypocrites. There is no sincerity, no human relations and every one tries to satisfy his selfish motive. Out attitude towards everything including our institution, our life and our relations with others have become mechanical. We have become time conscious and always try to finish our work in a speed through faulty manner. That is why we don’t enjoy the beauties of Nature and charms of life. Moreover our thinking has become mechanical. So we present our ideas as ideals. Man has become a thinking machine.

Scientific spirit has made us fickle minded. In life we always need anchorage. By shifting from one opinion to another and by taking us from one ideal to another, science has created uncertainty in our thinking. Clearly, science has brought a great change in our life.

It is wrong to think that scientific spirit should be finished because it is leading us towards destruction. Without scientific spirit man would have made no progress. So instead of checking the growth of scientific our aim should be to channelize it.