The U.N.O. is the world organization that replaced the League of Nations. It provides a forum for states to come together and discuss matters of mutual interest particularly of peace and war. The primary task of the U.N.O. is to maintain and promote world peace and punish the aggressor and promote economic, social and cultural cooperation among states.
It provides machinery for the pacific settlement of international disputes. It performs its tasks through various agencies and organs like the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the UNESCO and W.H.O. etc.
The U.N.O. was conceived as early as 1914, when the Atlantic Charter was drawn up on the principle of equality of states and their freedom to choose any form of government they liked. Representatives of 26 governments in 1942 signed the United Nations Declaration on the basis of Adantic Charter.
The United Nations charter was drawn up by the representatives of 50 countries at San Francisco in June, 1945 on the basis of proposals worked out by representatives of the U.K., the U.S.A., theU.S.S.R. and China at Dumbarton Oaks in 1944. The Charter was signed on 26th June, 1945 by 51 nations. The U.N.O. came into existence officially on October 24, 1945.
Objects of U.N.O.:
The objects of U.N.O. are :
(1) to maintain international peace and security;
(2) develop friendly relations among nations;
(3) to co-operate internationally in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedom; and
(4) to be a centre for harmonizing actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
Principles of the U.N.O.:
The United Nations Organization is based on the following principles and acts in accordance with them.
1. It is based on the sovereign equality of all its members:
2. All member states are supposed to fulfill in good faith the obligations imposed upon them by the Charter.
3. All international disputes are to be settled through peaceful means.
4. All member states refrain from the use of force in any international dispute.
5. The U.N. Organization is to see that the non-members do not prove to be a threat to international peace and security.
6. The organization shall not intervene in the domestic affairs of a state.
7. The member states are supposed to assist the Organization in any action taken by it in accordance with the U.N. charter.
Membership of the U.N.O. is open to all peace- loving nations of the world, which accept the obligations of the U.N.O. Charter, and in the judgement of the U.N.O. are able and willing to carry out these obligations. Those members who signed the Charter on June 26, 1945, are known as original members.
Other states are admitted by the General Assembly on the recommendations of the Security Council. Members may be suspended or expelled by the General Assembly on the recommendations of the Security Council. The Security Council can restore the rights of a suspended member.
Organs of the U.N.O.:
It has six main organs :
(1) The General Assembly
(2) The Security Council
(3) The Economic and Social Council
(4) The Trusteeship Council
(5) The International Court of Justice
(6) The Secretariat
It may set up subsidiary organs as it may deem necessary.