Protracted deliberations and mutual negotiations led to the inception of the United Nations Organization in 1945.
International peace and security is the first concern of United Nations Organization, and the wing of United Nations which performs this duty is the Security Council.
The Security Council often described as the enforcement wing of United Nations. For this purpose, its service can be requisitioned any time. This naturally implies that the Security Council has to work continuously so that it can take quick action in the event of threat to international peace or security.
At present the Security Council comprises of 15 members-five permanent and ten non-permanent. The five permanent members are China, France, Russia, USA and United Kingdom. The non-permanent members are not eligible for immediate re-election.
For its deliberative and enforcement functions the Security Council is meant the heart of United Nations, because every matter related to peace and security are settled and discussed in Security Council. In the first instance the council has the power to discuss and investigate any dispute or situation and make recommendation to the member states to settle their disputes by peaceful means. Disputes or situation likely to endanger international peace and security may be brought to the attention of Security Council by any member of UN, by the General Assembly or by the Secretary General.
The Security Council has also been vested with important enforcement powers. When the Security Council finds that a peaceful settlement among the disputant countries is not possible, it can decide upon measure which it considers necessary for the maintenance of order and restoration of international peace and security.
While taking up adequate measures, Security Council first tries to resolve the dispute without involving the use of armed forces. For this purpose it can adopt measures like complete or partial interruption of economic relations, severing of rail, sea, air, postal, radio and other communication links; and snapping of diplomatic relations.
The new members to the world body can be admitted by General Assembly only on the recommendation of the Security Council. By virtue of this power the Security Council refused to recommend admission of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania etc. as members of United Nations. Due to these elaborate powers and functions Security Council has been called the heart of the UN.