The uneven distribution of rainfall has often threatened human welfare, livelihood and economic development. The growing scarcity of water is due to the rapid growth of population, rising demand for food and cash crops, increasing urbanisation and rising standard of living. All these have increased the acuteness of the problem of water scarcity in future.

For efficient water conservation and management, the following points are to be kept in mind:

1. To aware people about the necessity of water and its conservation.

2. To involve people in all the activities of water management.


3. To make people aware that treated water should not be used in gardening, washing toilets and wash basins and so on.

4. Drying up of underground aquifers should be prevented.

5. Water-bodies should be kept pollution-free.

6. Different measures for specific area should be adopted for efficient water management, and active cooperation of the local people should also be sought in every measure. In spite of the fact that irrigation facilities in the country have improved considerably since independence, two-third of the cropped area is still rained. Increased use of tube wells and wells in recent years has lowered the water table and has caused depletion of underground water resources.


Water shed is a physiographic unit that can be used conveniently for integrated development or small natural unit areas. It is the basin of a tributary. It is developed taking into consideration the land capability and the local needs of the people.