For the proper management of surface water resources following guidelines may be suggested:

1. Curbing reckless and unscientific use of water resources and minimising their wastage and loss.

2. Promoting recycling and re-use of water.

3. Encouraging water management and con­servation measures.


4. Controlling water pollution and purifying polluted water for agricultural and industrial uses.

5. Storing rain water for use during dry sea­son.

6. Diverting flood water to water-deficient and drought prone areas.

7. Making arrangement for inter-basin trans­fer/diversion of surface water.


8. Installing multipurpose projects for har­nessing water resources with special emphasis on backward areas and weaker sections of the society.

9. Arranging suitable rehabilitation to up­rooted families due to development projects.

10. Adopting such techniques of irrigation which require minimum water and avoiding water losses during irrigation.

11. Improving the quality of water to make it fit for human consumption and use.


12. Curbing reckless use of ground water resources and devising methods for its recharging and augmentation.

13. Providing solution to problems of water logging, salinity, rising of underground water table, water pollution and taking effective measures for maintaining ecological balance.

14. Surveying and constant monitoring of hydrological system and taking corrective decision wherever necessary.

15. Preparing water budget on regional and national basis and promoting scientific researches on hydrological cycle, underground water, seepage of sea water etc. Area means basin area in India source: S.P. Das Gupta, 1989 the Himalayan drainage system.


Even then there are significant variations in the drainage characteristics and hydrological conditions of these two drainage systems, which have well adjusted to the relief and structure of the triple tectonic divisions of the coun­try.

A third method may be to classify the Indian drainage on the basis of its regional distribution as (1) North Indian Drainage, and (2) South Indian Drainage.

The former includes the Himalayan re­gion, the Great Plains and the northern part of the Peninsula. Here the main river systems are the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus and rivers of the Rajasthan Plains. This drainage area is oriented to the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and inland basins. The South Indian drainage spreads over the Peninsular Uplands and the nearby coastal plains including within its purview river systems like Mahanadi,

Among the important waterfalls of the Peninsula men­tion may be made of the Jog on Sharvati (280 m), Yenna of Mahabaleshwar (183 m), Sivasamudram on Kaveri (91 m), Gokak on the Gokak (55 m), Kapildhara (23 m) and Dhuandhar (15 m) on the Narmada, Paikara in Nilgiri hills, and Doodhsagar on the Doodhganga.