Raph W Tyler states in his ‘Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction’ that any learning objective needed to be determined via student behaviour in the classroom. He, through his work, made emphasis on the administrative aspects of the curriculum and gave four basic principles to apply in the development of any auricular project. His four basic principles of curriculum planning are:
1. Learning objectives should be defined.
2. Learning experiences which are useful for targeted objectives should be established.
3. A maximum cumulative effect should be aimed through organizing learning experiences.
4. Curriculum should be evaluated and through this evaluation ineffective aspects should be revised.
Criticism against Tyler’s Approach:
There are two main grounds on which Tyler’s principles are criticized. While, the first ground of criticism is scientist like role of the curricularists and teachers, the second one lies in the condition of students as passive instruments. As a result of Tyler’s basic principles, the role of the curricularists and teacher shifted to that of scientist.
In the development of any curriculum using the Tyler method hypotheses are to be established in direct relation to be expected learning outcomes for students. As the curriculum is enacted, teachers and curricularists become scientific observers, determining whether or not their curricular hypotheses are in fact demonstrated by student behaviour.
Following the application of the curriculum, educators return to the curricular plans to make any adjustments so as to ensure the proper outcomes in the classroom. In this case, students do not participate on any level in the planning or implement of their education, rather, they solely assume the role of object of study.
Modern approach to the principles of curriculum planning is mere extension of Tyler’s principles. In this approach curricularists and teacher’s are placed as analysers and guides, while, students have been given the place of active agents in the application of these principles, these principles are applicable to the present day scenario and guide schools in whole school planning and curriculum development.
According to modern approach the principles of curriculum planning are as follows:
1. Organizing learning experiences to have a maximum cumulative effect.
2. Evaluating the curriculum and revising those aspects that did not prove to be effective.
3. Defining appropriate learning objectives.
4. Establishing useful learning experiences.
Core Values in Curriculum Framework:
Values are must for a humanistic social behaviour. They give meaning and purpose to social lives. These decided values in curriculum framework are as follows:
1. Respect and concern for others and their rights, resulting in sensitivity to and concern for the well-being of others, respect for others and a search for constructive ways of managing conflict.
2. Social and civic responsibility, resulting in a commitment to exploring and promoting the common goods; meeting individual needs in ways which do not infringe the rights of others; participating in democratic processes; social justice and cultural diversity.
3. Environmental responsibility, resulting in a respect and concern for the natural and cultural environments and a commitment to regenerative and sustainable resource use. These values which are listed in full on the inside back cover of the document, are woven through all aspects of the framework.
4. Essentials for core value are a commitment to the pursuit of knowledge and achievement of potential, resulting in a disposition towards striving to understand the world and how best one can make a contribution to it, and the pursuit of excellence in all fields of experience and endeavor.
5. Self acceptance and respect of self, resulting in attitudes and actions which develop each person’s unique potential physical, emotional, aesthetic, spiritual, intellectual, moral and social.