(a) Pre-requisites to Lesson Planning
There are certain essential considerations which must be kept in view before writing lesson plans. These are the following:
(i) The teacher must have mastery over the subject-matter he is going to present. He should sort out the major points in the lesson and have a clear perception of the activities that are to be pursued in the class-room.
(ii) He should not only have mastery over subject-matter but should have a thorough grounding in the principles and techniques of teaching. He should be clear in his mind about the various tools and techniques in his armour that he would employ. That is to say, he should be well-conversant with the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of teaching.
(iii) He should have a sound knowledge of child psychology and possess knowledge about the children he is to teach. He should keep in mind the various principles of teaching while thinking about the selection of various kinds of activities.
He should possess the ability to create learning situations appropriate to the age and ability level of students.
He must also keep in mind the feasibility of conducting the learning activities successfully. He should do well to think of individual differences in children and catering to the needs and interests of each individual child.
(iv) The teacher should be clear in his mind about the aims and objectives of education, which he wants to realize by going over a particular lesson. He should, further, not lose sight of the bigger aims of education. It will give the^ teacher width and breadth of outlook that are essential for professional advancement.
(u) The teacher must know thoroughly the previous knowledge or experiences of the pupils about the topic he is to teach. The new topic is to grow out of the perceptive background to the pupils.
(b) Essential Elements of a Good Lesson Plan
There are certain essential elements that a good lesson plan must possess. These are as follows:
(i) Lesson plan should preferably be written. That assures the teacher that he has gone over the lesson from every angle. After considerable experience a teacher need not actually write his lesson notes because he is experienced enough to make mental notes of the lesson. Mental planning becomes almost a “second nature” with him.
(ii) In a good lesson plan, the objectives of the lesson, both general and specific, should be clearly and concisely stated in unambiguous terms. It helps to clarify the activities, which are to be directed to achieve those objectives. It will help in evaluation too.
(iii) The lesson plan should be related to the past knowledge of the students, that is, their previous lessons. It should not stand isolation from the knowledge the children already possess. Some working link should be established.
(iv) The subject-matter should be carefully selected and well organize under significant points, stage by stage. It should be progressively correlated with what has gone before and with what is to follow.
(v) A good lesson plan should clearly indicate the type and nature of activities that are to be introduced in the class- room. It should clearly mention the learning situations along with the corresponding subject-matter.
(vi) A good lesson plan clearly states the tools and techniques to be used by the teacher in presenting and developing the lesson. It should clearly indicate the method of presentation, the questions to be asked, the illustrations to be used, other aids e.g., maps, charts, diagrams, films, and T.V. etc.
(vii) The lesson-plan should indicate the black-board work to be done by the teacher, as well as the assignments to be given to the students.
(viii) It should mention the evaluation procedure, preferably some concrete evaluation exercises. The exercises may be recapitulate questions,1 problems demanding application of knowledge, etc.
(ix) The selected reference books, magazines etc. should also be indicated in the plan. However, the material referred to must be easily available to the students.
(x) The lesson plan should clearly indicate the age of pupils, and time allotted. It should preferably be divided into sections or units to facilitate the presentation and evaluation procedure.
(xi) And at the end of the lesson plan there should be some space for criticism where the teacher himself or some of his colleagues can write down the good as well as weak points of the lesson.
All the above points are the essentials of a good lesson plan.