Sustainable development is the concept of needs and limitations imposed by technology and society on the environment’s ability to meet the present and future need. The term sustainable development was brought into common use by the world commission on environment and development in its reports (WCED).

According to WCED sustainable development means a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potentiality to meet human needs and aspirations.

Sustainable development is a development that meets needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. For achieving sustainable development what is needed in global movement as well as significantly increased political will and public pressure in order to persuade industry, governments and institutions to take responsibility for their action.

It must be borne in mind that development should not endanger the natural system that supports life on earth. With this attitude towards nature technological advances increase our ability to use earth resources and thus increase the damage.


However, the realization is growing fast that we are in a world of limits and ever increasing growth of material consumption can only damage the life giving physical components of the environment.

The concept of sustainable development was highly appreciated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at a Rio de Janero in Brazil, commonly known as Earths Summit.

Sustainable development also needs understanding the basic needs of deprived people of the world. It is necessary to provide opportunities in order to satisfy their aspirations for a better and secured life. Sustainable development can be successfully achieved by (I) conservation or reduction of excessive resource use (II) recycling and reuse of materials and (III) more use of renewable resources like solar energy, rather than non­renewable resources such as oil and coal.

The sustainability of development is initially linked to the dynamics of growth of population. The failure of family planning programme has been the principal reason for India’s continuing backwardness. It is thus essentially needed to adopt a rational, welfare oriented human approach to family plann7ing in order to achieve the goals of sustainable development. In this respect the developed countries have disproportionate impact on the global environment compared to developing countries.


Besides, industry has always been the primary cause of economic development. Needless to mention that without adequate environmental protection development cannot be achieved to the extend which we require. The kinds of industries that grow fast determine the severity of pressure on natural resources and consequent environmental problems.

Apart from industries involvement, global warming stands in the way of sustainable development. The primary cause of global warming is the green house gases. The generation of excessive amount of green house gases by developed countries is a matter of serious concern. The climatic changes induced by green house gases effects agriculture, and other fields including forestry.

It must be released that development at the cost of greenery and ecology, cannot be called as sustainable development. Over exploitation of natural resources, deforestation and the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture have resulted many changes in the different components of environment.

In this respect it is always desirable to use environment friendly products on controlling agricultural pollution towards sustainable developments. Biopesticides are considered as biological control agents like bacteria, fungi and insects which work for pest control in plants.


Industrial revolution has led to the development of cities where population has been increased due to what is known as urbanization. The population growth in the cities has led to acute shortage of clean environment. The urbanization adds to air, water and noise pollution to a greater extent.