Various postulates of Bohr’s atomic model are:
1. In an atom, the electrons revolve around the nucleus in certain definite circular paths called orbits, or shells.
2. Each shell or orbit corresponds to a definite energy. Therefore, these circular orbits are also known as energy levels or energy shells.
3. The orbits or energy levels are characterized by an integer not, where, n can have values 1, 2, 3, 4……. The integer not (= 1, 2, 3…) is called the quantum number of respective orbit. The orbits are numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4………… etc., starting from the nucleus side. Thus, the orbit for which n=1 is the lowest energy level.
The orbits corresponding to n = 1,2,3,4…..etc., are also designated as K,L,M,N……….etc., shells. When the electron is in the lowest energy level, it is said to be in the ground state.
Since, electronics can be present only in these orbits, hence, these electrons can only have energies corresponding to these energy levels, i.e., electrons in an atom can have only certain permissible energies .
4. The electrons present in an atom can move from a lower energy level (Elower) to a level of higher energy (Ehigher) by absorbing the appropriate energy. Similarly, an electron can jump from a higher energy level (Ehigher) to a lower energy level (Elower) by losing the appropriate energy.
The energy absorbed or lost is equal to the difference between the energies of the two energy levels, i.e.,
ΔE= Ehigher – Elower