The judgement marks yet another watershed in constitutional history of India in that the unabashed politically ulterior motives at the Centre and the States took precedence over constitutional propriety both at the Centre and the States in the Bihar case.
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The living outer boundary of cytoplasm of a cell is the plasma membrane. Though a number of models have been proposed to explain the ultra-structure of plasma membrane, the fluid mosaic model proposed by Singer and Nicolson (1974) is widely accepted.
Rutherford’s nuclear model of an atom considers an atom to consist of a positively charged nucleus with electrons revolving around it. The electrons and the nucleus in an atom are held together by electrostatic force of attraction.
Various postulates of Bohr’s atomic model are: 1. In an atom, the electrons revolve around the nucleus in certain definite circular paths called orbits, or shells. 2. Each shell or orbit corresponds to a definite energy. Therefore, these circular orbits are also known as energy levels or energy shells.
In 1913, Niels Bohr put forward his theory regarding the structure of an atom. He retained the main features of Rutherford’s nuclear model and proposed some modifications. The proposed model is known as Bohr’s model. Its salient features are as follows.