The aim of five years planning in India have been an overall development of India but as far as planning concerned with science and technology has the aim of to foster, promote and sustain the cultivation of the sciences and scientific research and to encourage individual for dissemination of scientific knowledge and above all to secure for the people of the country all benefits that accrue from the acquisition and application of scientific knowledge. However,

India has developed its own model of R & D planning. The planning process adopted over the year is a two way process involving brood policy guidelines from the Planning Commission and ensuring interaction with scientists at national, agency laboratory and university levels. This ensures the effective participation of the scientific community in decision-making. The planning process involves the following steps:-

(i) The government declares its policy guidelines and thrust areas which are communicated to research agencies and institutions.

(ii) Speciliased branches of science, areas of research and development are asked to prepare plans in respective areas.


(iii) These plans are coordinated at laboratory level and discussed by scientific advisory panels of respective laboratories.

(iv) This plans of laboratory level are coordinated at agency level and scrutinized by experts. But the final scrutiny is done by the planning commission level then, finalized and resources are allocated.

However, the First Plan aimed at the setting up of new national laboratories and research institutes, training the personnel for manning the research institutes and running industries. The translating the results of scientific research into commercial production, the exploration and survey of resources were also emphasized.

During the Second Plan, efforts were made to strengthen research facilities, coordinating research progarmmes in various national laboratories and institutions with the need of national plan, linking up research work at the national level with the regional and state level. This plan also focused to train and generates scientific manpower in sufficient numbers and ensuring its proper utilization. The linking of research and industrial need has also emphasized.


The Third Plan emphasized to strengthen the existing research institutes and expand facilities for research in engineering and technology with a view to developing industrial and manufacturing instruments.

The fourth plan emphasized on purposeful research and development programmes and the priority areas identified under the plan were steel, chemicals instruments etc. The cooperation of outside agencies other than the CSIR also sought in the plan. The plan also aimed at avoiding duplication of research work of different laboratories and stressed on the utilization of indigenous expertise and materials in the nuclear power projects. Space department also got proper attention.

The fifth plan attempted to restructure the research programme into projects with pre­determined time spans, cost and benefits. In agriculture special emphasis on programmes to control crop diseases, dry farming and agricultural implements, surveying and research of natural resources.

The sixth plan included the task of creating a scientific temper for growth of science and its utilization in developmental process. A close nexus between science, and technology and space was envisaged. The plan also aimed to creating new research institution in the field of plasma physics, immunology and applied microbiology.


The Seventh plan emphased on policies and programmes to accelerate the growth in food production and to raise its productivity. It recognised emerging on world scene, such as micro- electronics, informatics, telemetric, robotics, biotechnology, material science, instrumentation etc.

The eight plans sought to integrate science and technology with socio-economic sectors and more particularly rural areas to meet the basic needs of water, nutrition, health and sanitation, shelter, energy, education and employment. The plan also emphasized to set up sophisticated infrastructure, instrumentation and trained man power.

The tenth plan has given out to New Science and Technology Policy 2003, in order to build a blue print for future programmes of science and technology. The policy outlines the approach to S & T governance, optional utilization of existing physical and knowledge sources, development of innovative technologies, system and technologies for mitigation and management of natural hazards, generation and management of intellectual property and creation of awareness among general masses about the use and benefits of science and technology.

Eleventh Plan and Science & Technology


Realising the need to invest heavily to bring development in science and technology and to meet the goals set under Vision 2025, the Eleventh

Five Year Plan endorsed by National Development Council has tripled the proposed allocation for scientific research and development. In order to boost the research and development activities in the country, the government has enhanced the S & T plan outlays for Scientific Departments and Agencies from Rs. 25,243 crores in the 10,h plan to 73,304 crores for the Eleventh Plan.

Further various initiatives have been proposed by the government to encourage investment on Research and Development both in the institutions and industry through served measures such as – setting up of new institutions for science education and research, creation for centers of excellence, strengthening infrastructure for research and development in universities and encouraging public-private partnership in research and development.

The plan also envisages the formulation of a National Innovation Policy to encourage competition among enterprises, greater diffusion of knowledge. It also talks of putting in place a legislative framework for providing incentives to investors.


It has also proposed for the establishment of Centers of Relevance and Excellence (CORE) in academic and Research and Development institutions in selected areas that are relevant to industries.

Other proposals include the Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) to become an effective link between technology generation centers and various ministries for dissemination and propagation of technology packages through employment generation and capacity building schemes. Apart from it creations of biotech clusters in Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Orissa, Punjab and West Bengal have been proposed.

There is also proposal for a National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority for single window clearance for all biotechnological products. Besides these thirty Central Universities, eight new IITs, seven IIMs, ten new National Institute of Technology and three Indian Institute of Science Education and Research will be set up during the Eleventh Five Year Plan.