In 1947, with the emergence of a new politically independent nation, India continued to march ahead pursuing a programme of using modern science and technology for national development.

Today, India spends about 1.5% of its GNP on science and technology and it has not only established unique capabilities of its own in this efforts but has also cooperated with developed as well as developing countries in its progress towards the use of science and technology.

There is no doubt that J.L Nehru’s India’s first Prime Minister was fully analyzed the indispensability of science and technology in the economic and the social independence.

The first Prime Minister of India made conscious efforts to enhance and modernise the scientific in fracture in the countries through setting up of a chain of national laboratories, institutes of higher technical education, universities etc. Not only that, soon after becoming the Prime Minister of India, Nehru created a Ministry of Scientific Research and Natural Resources and actively supported the atomic energy programme for peaceful purposes.


In 1948, the Atomic Energy Act was passed and the Department of Atomic Energy was directly under his charge was created. Under the farsighted leadership of Nehru, the nation, the government and the public leaders became committed to the promotion of science and technology. J.L. Nehru also appointed a scientific man power committee and five institutes of technology came up at Kharagpur, Bombay, Madras, Kanpur and Delhi besides a number of regional engineering colleges by his efforts. In 1948, Nehru directed the CSIR to prepare National Register of Scientific and Technical personnel.

Defense organization was set up in 1948, on advice prof. P.M.S Blackett for the scientific evolution of weapons and equipment, operational research and special studies.

The enthusiastic efforts of Mr. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar led to the expansion of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research into a chain of national laboratories spanning a wide spectrum of science, technology, engineering and biomedical sciences.

The vision of Homi. J. Bhabha also led to advanced research in nuclear energy and other fundamental areas through the creation of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research which is now known as the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC). Later on Indira Gandhi gave the highest priority to self-reliance in science and technology and self-sufficiency in food. In 1971, recongnising the importance of self-reliant electronic capabilities in the country, she set up the Electronic Commission.


To ensure that the developmental activities took place in harmony with the environment, Mrs. Gandhi created a new department of environment at the center in 1980. It was her initiative that the first Indian scientific expedition to Antartica. She was also deeply aware of the great importance of energy for development and in particular, the pressing needs in rural areas.

Accordingly, she set up a Commission on Additional Sources of Energy in March 1981 and thereafter a department of Non-conventional Energy source. Considering the further need for advancement in science and technology Mr. Rajiv Gandhi started Technology Mission as an offshoot of the seventh plan. This mission launched in the fields of literacy, immunization, oilseeds, drinking water, dairy products and telecommunication.

In the light of the new industrial and economic policies adopted by the government, the approach has been, on technology development besides enhancing the flow of technology from abroad, the department of electronic, space, nuclear energy etc. have initiated a series of technology Missions to meet the need of countries.

As a result of all these efforts now India is one of the leading country of the world in advancement of science and technology. And its example can be seen in the success of Chandarayana-I mission and launching of world class warfare Submarine Arihant which is an indigenous product. Launching of Oceansat-2 and Risat are another milestone of Indian science and technology.