Zahir-ud-Din Mohammad, surnamed Babur was born in 1483. He was connected with both the families of Timur and Chengiz Khan Thus he had in him the blood of the two greatest conquerors of Central Asia.
Babur is one of the most remarkable personalities in the history of Medieval India. He laid his foundation of the Mughal rule in India defeating Sultan Ibrahim lodi in the battle field of Panipath in 1526 A.D. He was son of Umar Saikh Mirza.
The ruler of Farghna. Babur succeeded to die throne of Farghna in 1494 A.D. After the death of his father, soon after his accession, Babur found himself surrounded by formidable enemies on all sides.
Within a few years after his accession Babur lost both Farghana and Samarquand.
In 1504 Babur occupied Kabul. In 1519 Babur undertook his first expedition against Indian territories and occupied the fort of Bajaur. He diverted his attention towards the Punjab. He was invited by Daulat Khan Lodi the Governor of Punjab to invade Hindustan.
The relation between Daulat Khan Lodi and Sultan Ibrahim Lodi was quite hostile. Babur accepted the invitation and entered Punjab in 1524. He occupied Lahore and Dipalpur. Daulat Khan Lodi-had hoped that Babur would restore Punjab to him.
But Daulat Khan was given the district of Jalandhar and Dipalpur was given to Alain Khan an uncle of Ibrahim Lodi. So Daulat Khan Lodi and Alam Khan revolted against Babur.
The First Battle of Panipath :
Babur launched his expedition against Ibrahim Lodi in November 1525. He occupied Punjab and compelled Daulat Khan Lodi to offer his submission. He advanced towards Delhi.
It is said that Rana Sangram Singh of Mewar also sent a message to Babur to help him against Sultan Ibrahim lodi. On the other hand Sultan Ibrahim Lodi knew about the intention of Babur and made elaborate military preparation to fight against him.
Finally the Mughals and the Afghans met in a well contested battle at Panipath in April 1526. Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed. Babur defeated the Afghan army by his superior combination of Cavalry and artillary and occupied Delhi and Agra.
The victory of Babur in the battle field of Panipath led to the establishment of Mughal Empire in India. But this victory did not give him virtual sovereignty over the country
After the battle of Panipath, Babur compelled the Afghan chief Shaikh Guren. Firoz Khan and Muhammad Khan Lohani to offer his submission.
His eldest son Humayun occupied Sambhal, Rapti, Etwab and Dholpur which were the strong hold of the Afghan chief.
Battle of Khanwah :
Rana Sangram Singh was the most formidable rival of Babur. He was popularly known as Rana Sanga. He was renowed for his intellect.
Valoor and virtues. The rulers of Gwalior, Ajmer, Kalpi and Chandri were his vassals. He had made his.power felt in Central India and Gujarat. Rana Sangram Singh put forth his claim over Kalpi, Dholpur and Biyana which had been occupied by Babur.
He organised a grand confederacy of Rajput chief and made elaborate preparation for giving battle to Mughals. The rulers of Chanderi, Marwar, Ambar, Gwalior and Ajmer supported Rana Sanga.
The Afghan chief like Hasan Khan Mewati and Muhammad Lodi offered their co-operation. Babur also made elaborate preparation to fight against the Rajputs for supremacy’. But his men were frightened getting reports about the courage and bravery- of the Rajputs.
Babur infused a new spirit in to the hearts of the disappointed soldiers through his inspiring speech. On 11th February Babur marched from Agra to the fight against Rana Sangram Singh and encamped at Sikri.
The Mughals and the Rajputs met each other in decisive contest at Khanwah, a village near Fatepur Sikri on 7th March 1527 A.D. The Rajput fought bravely but was defeated. Rana Sangram Singh escaped from the battle field and died broken hearted after some years. Babur strengthens his position.
The battle of Khanwah was more significant because Babur defeated the powerful Rajput confederacy and strengthened his position.
Babur occupied Chanderi defeating the Rajput chief Madini Rao.
Battle of Ghagra :
Mahammud Lodi the brother of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi had made himself master of Bihar. Babur deputed his son Askari against Mahammud Lodi. He also proceeded to assist him.
Number of Afghan chiefs submitted to Babur on his way from Allahabad to Buxar. Muhammud Lodi fled to Bengal being deserted by his followers. He took shelter under Sultan Nusrat Shah. Babur marched towards Bengal and defeated the allied Afghan army of Bihar and Bengal on the bank of Ghagra on 6th May 1529 A. D.
The Afghans were defeated. Sultan Nusrat Shah of Bengal concluded a treaty with Babur and agreed not to provide shelter to the enemies of Babur.
Thus as a results of his victories in the battle of Panipath, Khanwah and Ghagra. Babur established the Mughal Empire on the Indian soil, which extended from Indus to Bihar and from the Himalays to Gwalior and Chanderi, Babur laid the foundation of Mughal empire in India.