Proteins are the most important ,most scarce and most expensive of food stuff all over the world. Protein deficiency in child hood retards growth all round and does permanent damage to the body and mind. Apart from making people mentally and physically weak, protein deficiency accelerates female fertility.
Soya bean is one of the most nutrition among the beans and pulses; soya is a boon this country as the cheapest source of high quality vegetable protein. We can use it to make up the deficiency of meat, milk, eggs, khoya, pulses, butter and oils.
Soybean was introduced in India towards the end of 1977. Its cultivation is confined to some part of north India, hilly areas of U.P, Punjab and H.P, and some parts of central India. The potential of soybean in this country is not realized and as a result it has not been a major crop, but in other countries it has been fully utilized as a major source of edible oil and protein.
Soybean consists of approximately 40 percent protein, 26 percent carbohydrates, 20 percent oil, 4 percent minerals and 2 percent phospholipids. It is good for nervous diseases. Its flour can be used for diabetic patients, because of its low carbohydrate content. It contains sufficient amount of both water and fat –soluble vitamins. One kg of is equal to 2 kg of meat or fish ,or 3kg of eggs, or 1.1/2kg of ground nut or 4 kg of wheat or 6 kg of rice or 12 kg of milk.
Soybean is processed to prepare soya concentrate and soyas isolate which are used to enrich breakfast cereals, beverage powders and meat bits. High proteins baby food for pre–scholars containing Soya flour have been developed such as Bal-Ahar and Bal-Amul. Commercially available products include Nutria-Nugget, Nutreila, Mealmaker and Crunchies. Soya oil is being used in the vanaspati industry and has industrial uses, in the making of cosmetics paints. Based on an article by A.P Jain in HOME SCIENCE –September, 1979.