What are the principles that are used in teaching aids?

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Audio-visual aids should be used interdepartmentally. Here is an illus­trative list of aids which can be used by various sections of the same department as also by the various departments of the same institution.

(a) Epidiascope,

(b) Film projector,

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(e) Tape recorder and/or dictating machine, and

(f) Record player.

Different types of aids can be used advantageously for demonstrat­ing various subjects/topics of learning and for development of various skills. It is for the teachers to see that these audio-visual materials do not replace teaching.

Such aids may be used or the following purposes:

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(i) For introducing a new topic and for creating necessary background for further study.

(ii) For supplying a basis for conceptual thinking.

(iii) For arousing interest and intensifying learning so that it becomes more permanent.

(iv) To present actually used forms in business houses.

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(v) To show various vocational opportunities to the students.

Types of teaching aids

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (N.C.E.R.T.) have classified various aids as follows:

(I) Graphic Aids

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Such aids include the following:

(a) Photographs and pictures,

(b) Flash cards and strips,

(c) Posters,

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(d) Charts,

(e) Diagrams,

(f) Graphs,

(g) Maps,

(h) Cartoons, and

(i) Comics

(II) Display Boards

In this are included the following

Black Board,

Flannel Board,

Bulletin Board,

Magnet Board, and

Peg Board.

(III) Three Dimensional Aids

They are:

(a) Models,

(b) Objects,

(c) Specimens,

(d) Puppets and Mobiles. (TV) Project Aids

(a) Films,

(b) Films Strips, and

(c) Slides,

(V) Audio-Aids

(a) Radio,

(b) Television (TV), and

(c) Recording.

(VI) Activity Aids

(a) Field trips,

(b) Demonstration, and

(c) Dramatics.

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