What are the principles that are used in teaching aids?


Audio-visual aids should be used interdepartmentally. Here is an illus­trative list of aids which can be used by various sections of the same department as also by the various departments of the same institution.

(a) Epidiascope,

(b) Film projector,


(e) Tape recorder and/or dictating machine, and

(f) Record player.

Different types of aids can be used advantageously for demonstrat­ing various subjects/topics of learning and for development of various skills. It is for the teachers to see that these audio-visual materials do not replace teaching.

Such aids may be used or the following purposes:


(i) For introducing a new topic and for creating necessary background for further study.

(ii) For supplying a basis for conceptual thinking.

(iii) For arousing interest and intensifying learning so that it becomes more permanent.

(iv) To present actually used forms in business houses.


(v) To show various vocational opportunities to the students.

Types of teaching aids

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (N.C.E.R.T.) have classified various aids as follows:

(I) Graphic Aids


Such aids include the following:

(a) Photographs and pictures,

(b) Flash cards and strips,

(c) Posters,


(d) Charts,

(e) Diagrams,

(f) Graphs,

(g) Maps,

(h) Cartoons, and

(i) Comics

(II) Display Boards

In this are included the following

Black Board,

Flannel Board,

Bulletin Board,

Magnet Board, and

Peg Board.

(III) Three Dimensional Aids

They are:

(a) Models,

(b) Objects,

(c) Specimens,

(d) Puppets and Mobiles. (TV) Project Aids

(a) Films,

(b) Films Strips, and

(c) Slides,

(V) Audio-Aids

(a) Radio,

(b) Television (TV), and

(c) Recording.

(VI) Activity Aids

(a) Field trips,

(b) Demonstration, and

(c) Dramatics.

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