No single theory can explain the origin, direction, manner or consequences of social change. Change is such a complex process, that it is difficult to explain its causes, limits and consequences in a definitive specific manner.
Although, sociologists say that they are trying to look at change in an objective manner, the idea of progress is still very much present in modern social thought. Bottomore, holds that in the serious commitment to economic growth in the industrial countries, and subsequently in the countries of the third world has provided the impetus for critical for critical evaluation of unlimited and uncontrolled economic growth.
The effects of technology on the environment have animated powerful ecology movements, in most of the industrial and industrialising countries. There are debates about the nature of a ‘good society’ in relation to the rapid advance of science and technology and to unrestrained consumerism.