What do you mean by cultivation and botanical description of green gram ?

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Green gram is a pulse being grown in India since ancient past. At present it is being grown throughout India in about 3 million hectares and the total production is about 3 million hectares and the total production is about 1.1 million tones. Important mung-growing states are MP, UP, Bihar, Maharashtra, AP, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and west Bengal.

Botanical Description:

Green gram is a small herbaceous annual varying between 1 to 3 feet in height. The stems are ridged. The leaves are trifoliate and stipulates leaflets ovate, lanceolate. Racemose, axillary and few flowered, bracts and bracteoles present, flowers pale yellow. 6-7 mm long; bisexual and zygomorphic, calyx companulate with linear teeth; corolla papllionaceous; stamens 10 and diadelphous; ovary monocarpellary and sycarpous, many ovules, style filiform. Stigma obligue, pods linear, globular, small and green cotyledons yellow and known as dal.

Cultivation:

Climate: Green gram is commonly grown as a rain-fed kharif crop. Heavy rains or even damp winds at the time of flowering and fertilization may cause great harm.

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Soil: Deep, well drained loamy soils of the north and red and black soils of south India are suitable.

Rotation: In Orissa, MP, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamilnadu it is grown as a rabi crop in paddy fields. In other parts on India it is grown as a kharif crop either alone or along millets maize cotton sugarcane and redgram.

Land preparation and sowing:

For pure crop in kharif season, two or three ploughings and then harrowing are given to the land. For mixed crop separate tillage is not necessary. Manuring is done with 15-20 kg N and 40-50kg P2O2 per hectare. The kharif crop is sown in June – July where as rabi crop in September – October.

The seed is sown broadcast or in drilled in furrows behind the plough. A spacing of 25cm between rows may be adopted. The quantity of seed required for sowing on a hectare of land varies from 15 to 20 kg when sown alone. In case of mixed crop the seed rate in 2 to 6kg.

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Irrigation:

Kharif season crop does not require any irrigation except in case of drought while rabi season ceop requires irrigation at regular intervals. Water logging should not be allowed.

Harvesting and Yield:

The crop generally takes three months to mature. Some early varieties may mature in 60 days. The crop is harvested before it is dead ripe. For harvest, the plants are uprooted dried for a week or so and then threshing is done by beating with sticks or trampling by bullocks.

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The average yield of grain from a pure crop is 5-6 quintals per hectare.

Varieties:

Over 25 improved verities have been recommended in different states. ML-131 and Hyb 124 are suitable for Orissa. Some other varieties are Pusa baisakhi. PS-16, T-44, K-51 and pant mung 1, pant mung 2, pant mug 3 etc.

Diseases and insects pests:

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The crop is attacked by various viral diseases like leaf curl, lea crinkle; yellow mosaic etc. hairy caterpillars and lead hopper also destroy the crop.

Economic importance: The gains are highly nutrious as is commonly used as dal. They are also made into flour and are used in various delicious purposes. The plants after processing are used as cattle feed.

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