India is primarily an agricultural country. Climate, especially rainfall controls agricultural activities. In the extreme hot and dry season, agricultural activities come almost to a grinding halt.

We have two agricultural seasons in India depending upon rainfall occurrence. These are Rabi and Kharif season. June to October is the period of Kharif. During the season rice, jowar, maize, jute and cotton are raised. Rabi season is from November to April. Wheat, gram, barley, peas, linseed and mustard crops are grown in this season.

Kharif season

1. Kharif cropping season starts from the onset of Monsoon and ends up with the end of Monsoon.


2. Kharif season is from June or early July to the end of September or early October. Sowing of crops starts in June or early July and harvest begins by the middle of September or early October.

3. Major crops of Kharif season include rice, millets, maize, groundnuts, jute and cotton. Pulses like moong, urad and arhar are also grown in this season. Arhar takes longer period to mature than other crops.

Rabi season

1. Rabi cropping season starts with the season of Retreating Monsoon and ends up with the start of summer season.


2. Rabi season spreads from late October or early November to April- May.

3. Major crops of Rabi season are wheat, gram, barley, oilseeds like mustard seed and rapeseed. Pulses like masoor are also grown in this season.