Meaning, Characteristics: Adjustment is originated from the biological term adaptation. Biologists used the term adaptation strictly for the physical demands of the environments.
However psychologists, use the term ‘adjustment’ for varying conditions of special or inter-personal relation in the society. According to Dr. Vibasi Adjustment means the reactions to the demands and pressure of social environment imposed upon the individual. The demand to which the individual has to react may be external or internal. Psychologists have viewed ‘adjustment’ from two important perspectives as under:
1. For one, adjustment is an achievement.
2. For another adjustment is a process.
(1) The first point of view emphasizes the quality as efficiency of adjustment.
(2) The second point of view lays emphasis on the process by which an
Individual adjusts to his external environment.
1. Adjustment as achievement:
Adjustment means how efficiently an individual can do his duties under different circumstances. If we perceive adjustment as achievement, we have to set criteria to judge the quality of adjustment. No universal criteria can be set for all times to come. However some areas under:
(i) Physical health
(ii) Psychological comfort
(iii) Work efficiency
(iv) Social acceptance
2. Adjustment as process:
Adjustment as a process is important for teachers. Students’ adjustment largely depends on their interaction with the external environment in which they live.
They always try to adjust to it. Piaget uses the term assimilation and accommodation to represent the alternation of oneself or environment as a means of adjustment.
A person who carries his value and standard of conduct without any change and maintains these in spite of major changes in the social climate is called assimilator.
The person who takes his standards from his social context and changes his benefits in accordance with the altered values of the society is called accommodator.
For a successful adjustment a person has to resort to both the devices i.e. assimilation and accommodation. Characteristics of a We adjusted Person: A healthy and well-adjusted person should possess some observable behavioural patterns.
These behavioural patterns must be according to the social expectations of an individual. Some of these patterns are as under:
1. Emotional balance
2. Maturity in thinking
3. Independence in decision making
4. Free from tension due to routine events
5. Warm and understanding towards others
Elements of Adjustment:
The prime elements for fulfillment of needs necessary for healthy adjustment of a person are as follows:
1. Absence of obstacle in achieving needs
2. Satisfaction of needs
3. Strong motive in realizing needs
4. Feasible geographical atmosphere to fulfill needs.